American Journal of Applied Psychology
Volume 4, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages: 146-149

Child Victimization at Working Places in Bangladesh

Md. Kamruzzaman

Department of Criminology and Police Science, Faculty of Life Science, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Santosh, Tangail, Bangladesh

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To cite this article:

Md. Kamruzzaman. Child Victimization at Working Places in Bangladesh.American Journal of Applied Psychology.Vol.4, No. 6, 2015, pp. 146-149. doi: 10.11648/j.ajap.20150406.13


Abstract: The study was conducted on Tangail Sadar upazila at Tangail district in Bangladesh. There were 60% boys and 40% girlstaken for the study applyingconvenience sampling method. According to the study, 32.9% respondents worked in restaurant, 18.8% in industries and households. Results showed that 41.1% respondents were sexually abused, 23.55% tortured by senior co-workers and 35.25% were physically assaulted. There were 42.4% respondents to work 5-8 hours and 30.5% above 8 hours per dayviolating the ILO regulations.

Keywords: Child Victimization, Working Places, Bangladesh


1. Introduction

Victimization is the process of being victimized or becoming a victim [1]. Childhood victimization uses the broader victimization concept instead of the terms "violence". Victimization also refers to harm caused by human agents acting in violation of social norms [2]. Children become victims when they experienced involuntary physical, sexual, emotional injuries, losses or death at the hands of another human being. Children may be victimized by adults and other children, by family members (parents, siblings, other relatives); by friends and acquaintances and by strangers [3]. The term ‘child victimization’ covers a wide range of behavior, from actual physical assault by parents or other adult caretakers to neglect child's basic needs [4]. Victimization in working places is used in discrimination law to describe action by an employer, against an employee, in retaliation for involvement in bringing, or supporting, a complaint of discrimination [5]. Child labor refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to perform regular schooling and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful [6]. Child is a young up to18 year's age according to the section 4 of Child Act 2013 in Bangladesh. According to the UNICEF, child labor is work that exceeds a minimum number of hours, depending on the ages of children and on the types of work. These works are harmful to the child and should therefore be eliminatedwhen a child of 5-11 ages do at least one hour of economic work or 28 hours of domestic work per week, 12-14 ages child at least 14 hours of economic work or 28 hours of domestic work per weekand 15-17ages at least 43 hours of economic or domestic work per week [7].

According to the ILO, child labor is often defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development [8]. According to the latest figures in a new ILO report, ending child labor in domestic work , they work in the homes of a third party or employer, carrying out tasks such as cleaning, ironing, cooking, gardening, collecting water, looking after other children and caring for the elderly. Vulnerable to physical, psychological and sexual violence and abusive working conditions, they are often isolated from their families, hidden from the public eye and become highly dependent on their employers. Many might end up being commercially sexually exploited [9]. It is found that children when work within few people or alone, late at night or during the early morning in a mobile workplace and in delivery of goods, passengers or services are victimized more [10]. Children aged 12-17are the victims of violent crime (including simple and aggravated assault, rape and other sexual assault and robbery) at much higher rates than are adults in the working atmosphere [11].

Therefore, the current study was conducted toassess the degree of different types of victimization towards child at working places at Tangail district in Bangladesh.

2. Methodology

2.1. StudyType

The study was a pilot study.

2.2. Study Population

There were taken a total 85 child workers at different places under Tangail district in Bangladesh.

2.3. Study Duration

The study was conducted from January 2015 to August 2015.

2.4. SamplingProcedure

The non-probability (Convenience sampling) method was applied to sort the boys and girls for the study.

2.5. Data Collecting Assay

A plannedquestionnaire was developed containing both the closed and open ended query to collect data through face-to-face interview with the respondents. The questionnaire was pretested in areas far away from the sample areas and revised according to the feedback gained in the field level. The questionnaire was formed to obtain the relevant information considering personal, household, social and economic details, victimization status and assessments.

2.6. Data Verification

The questionnaire was checked per day taking the interview and gain these were carefully rechecked after collecting all the data and coded prior the entrancing into computer technology. The data was edited in case of sighting discrepancy (doubt entry, wrong entry etc.)

2.7. Statistical Analysis

The data were processed to undergo statistical analysis using SPSS 16 windows program. Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel were used to represent the tabular and chart icon.

3. Results

Among the total respondents, 47.1% belongs to the age group of 10-14 years. It’s also observed that 36.62% fathers of the respondents were rickshaw pullers while 49.33% mothers were housewives (Table 1).

According to table 2, 32.9% work in restaurant, 18.8% in industryand households. There were found 30.5% respondents working above 8 hours daily. It also presented that, 48.2% children work to earn livelihood and 12.9% to support educational expense. Some 41.2% received their salary irregularly, 12. 9% are deprived and most of the respondents (41.2%) earn 3000-6000 BDT per month.

There were13% respondents found to torture by beating and9.4% bygrievous assault. About 16.5% respondents were victimized by forced sexual perversion and 14.1% raped (Table 3).

Table 1. Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents.

Parameters Frequency Percentage
Sex
Girls 34 40
Boys 51 60
Age (years)
<10 16 18.8
10-14 40 47.1
15-18 29 34.1
Father’s occupation
Day labors 20 28.17
Farmers 15 21.13
Rickshaw pullers 26 36.62
Small traders 10 14.08
Mother’s occupation
Housewives 37 49.33
Garment worker 25 33.33
Day labors 13 17.33

Table 2. Working dimensions.

Parameters Frequency Percentage
Working places
Households 16 18.8
Transport workers 10 11.8
Industries 16 18.8
Restaurants 28 32.9
Others 15 17.6
Working duration (hours)
1-4 23 27.1
5-8 36 42.4
> 8 26 30.5
Working causation
To support educational expense 11 12.9
To support family 27 31.8
To earn livelihood 41 48.2
Others 6 7.1
Salary receiving patterns
Per week 18 21.2
Per month 21 24.7
Irregular 35 41.2
Deprived 11 12.9
Salary per month (BDT)    
< 2000 22 25.9
3000-6000 35 41.2
> 6000 28 32.9

Table 3. Assaulting dimensions.

Parameters Frequency Percentage
Physical assault
Heating 5 5.8
Grievous assault 8 9.4
Beating 11 13
Pulling hair 6 7.05
Sexual abuse
Rape 12 14.1
Forced sexual perversion 14 16.5
Sexual harassment 9 10.5
Torturing frequency by senior co-worker    
Sometimes 14 16.5
very often 6 7.05

4. Discussion

There are huge numbers of child labors in Bangladesh [12] and the working children are in deprivation to their rights to survival, education and they were physically and sexually victimized in their working places sometimes. The study covered the working places victimization of the children to represent the whole figure of Bangladesh. Most of the respondents are boys and belongs to the age group10-14 years according to the study. Certain groups of children are more likely to work than others, for instance boys comprise about three-quarters of all working children. In slums almost one in five children aged 5-14 are child laborerswho are in full swing to continue a very miserable social and economic life [13].

According to the study information, 32.9% work in restaurant, 18.8% work in industry and maximum of the respondents (42.4%) work 5-8 hours per day. It also presented that, 48.2% children work to earn their livelihood, 41.2% received their salary irregularly and most of the respondents (41.2%) earn 300-6000 BDT per month. Another study shows that, child labor is a visible part of everyday life in Bangladesh where children serve at roadside tea stalls and weave between cars selling goods to motorists. Other children work in jobs that are hidden from view, such as domestic work, which makes monitoring and regulation difficult. On an average, children worked 28 hours a week and earn 222 BDT (3.3 USD) a week [14,15]. Child employment rates increase with age but even about 2% of 5-years-old and 3% of 6-years-old [16,18].

According to the present study, 7.05% children are tortured by pulling hair, 13% by beating, 16.5% forced sexual perversion and 14.1% raped in working places. Another study done on child labor by ILO showing 60% children were physically victimized [17,19].

These unwanted sex-related behaviors at work are exceeding which is threat to child worker [20]. Other crimes against teens of 12–17 years were also down dramatically as measuredby the NCVS and found assault wasforcible raped 74%, simple assault 63%, grievous assault 72% in their work environment [21,22].This kind of exploitation causes physical and psychological health problems [23]. Both the sexual assault has great negative impact on the safe childhood of the children [24-26]. According to Article 34 of the constitution of Bangladesh, any forced labor is prohibited and Section 34 of the Bangladesh Labor act 2006, child labor is prohibited and engaging child labor is punishable act (section 284). Considering the overall study, it felt that the working places for the children should be safer and exploitation free according to the existing laws to reduce child victimization and to ensure safe childhood.

5. Conclusion

The child victimization issue in working places is one of the great concerns and has become a severe problem in the developing countries like Bangladesh. It is quite common for children of all types of societies to be engaged in some forms of occupation depending on the economic structure and level of development. Children are more at risk for victimization than the adults for several reasons. It is time to take proper measures against child victimization in working places. Along with the government, different local and international NGOs should organize public awareness, education and rehabilitation programs to upgrade their condition to ensure their secured childhood.


References

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