American Journal of Modern Physics
Volume 4, Issue 4, July 2015, Pages: 165-179

The Development of a Possible Prâna (@ Vital Living Force i.e. Indian Concept of Life Energies) Model Through the Consciousness Model

Dhananjay Pal

Pharmacy College, Bengal School of Technology, West Bengal, India

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To cite this article:

Dhananjay Pal. The Development of a Possible Prâna (@ Vital Living Force i.e. Indian Concept of Life Energies) Model Through the Consciousness Model. American Journal of Modern Physics. Vol. 4, No. 4, 2015, pp. 165-179. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.13


Abstract: A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind (UM). This UM is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy  of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the same . The same  is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. Any matter as well as any individual mind is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo and these TCP and TRP are originated from the same Void. These TCP, TRP and the thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo play significant roles in understanding what is called ‘Prâna’, the Indian concept of ‘life energies’. ‘Prâna’ is also called the universal power. The consciousness model involving the TCP, TRP and TF (thought force) may provide guidelines to develop a ‘Prâna’ model.

Keywords: Void, Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR), Universal Mind (UM), Thought Force (TF), Though-Carrying Particle (TCP), Thought Retaining Particle (TRP), Quantized Energy  of TCP


1. Introduction

In Eastern philosophical traditions, consciousness is intrinsic to the universe, whereas in most Western views, consciousness is extrinsic, emerging from complex computation. How can these views be reconciled?

It is most relevant and important to indicate the names of various eminent physicists like Erwin Schrödinger, Eugene Wigner, Brian Josephson, John Wheeler, Roger Penrose, Henry P Stapp, Freeman J. Dyson, Paul Davies, David Bohm, Basil Hiley, Fritjof Capra, Fred Alan Wolf and Amit Goswami who have addressed the inclusion of consciousness in their work. Consciousness is to be taken into account.

In contrast to the usual linear sequence of matter, body, life, brain, mind, consciousness, here the proposed cyclic sequence is first universal consciousness (a functional state of the universal mind), and then matter, body, life, brain, and regeneration of mind and consciousness. The evolution of life with mind and consciousness is possible purely due to the inherent existence of universal consciousness which exists along with the universe. The human nervous system is evolved to provide an appropriate material structure to individualize the universal consciousness, a characteristic of reality, pervading all manifestations.

Consciousness model of Pal et al [1-3] involving TCP, TRP and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. Pal et al [3] showed that this universal consciousness is a functional state of Universal Mind (UM). Pal et al [3] explained that the UM is evolved at the Big Bang from the eternal Void. This Void, in turn, is the source of infinite energy. And this UM is a finer matter. The individual mind being a constituent of the UM is also a finer matter. The constituents of the UM and individual mind are the same. The ultimate constituents of matter and mind are the same as both mind and matter are aspects of one fundamental reality, which is called UM. The brain is the mediating link or interface between the individual mind and body.

Pal et al [3] explained that the constituents of the UM are the ultimate constituents of matter itself as everything in this universe is a manifestation of this UM. Pal et al [3] expressed that the UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Pal et al [1, 3] further explained that the ultimate constituents of matter and mind are these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo.

Physicists determined that underlying quantum fields give birth to elementary particles. Bhaumik [4] mentioned that Frank Wilczek pointed out, "In quantum field theory, the primary elements of reality are not individual particles, but underlying fields. Thus, for example, all electrons are but excitations of an underlying field, naturally called electric field". The same holds true for all the fundamental particles of which matter is made.

The existence of matter depends on the existence of underlying quantum field and vice versa. TRP cannot exist without TCP and vice versa. Many physicists believe that unifying all the fields, including gravity, into a single theory would require a phenomenon called super-symmetry. With super-symmetry, every fermion would have a boson twin, and vice-versa. The thought force (TF) is carried by the TCP in the presence of its super-symmetrical partner TRP. TCP that behaves like boson should accompany its super-symmetrical partner TRP that functions like fermion in the generalized simpler way. It is to be noted that these TCP and TRP function like wavicle: wave–particle duality.

There would be no force if matter or field would not exist. So force depends on the existence of matter and fields. It is to be noted that a single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The Thought force (TF) as expressed by Pal [5] is the primordial quantum field that functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields.

2. Thought Force

Pal et al [1, 3] and Pal [5] explained the existence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF), an expression of the universal consciousness, is the primordial quantum field that, in turn, functions as the primary unified field. This TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). Thus the TF being an expression of the universal consciousness exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo.

Physicists determined that underlying quantum fields give birth to elementary particles. Pal [5] expressed that the thought force (TF) is the primordial quantum field. Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the primary unified field. Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field gives birth to TRP that appears to be the origin of all the matter particles. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. TCP thus appears to be the origin of all the field particles.

In a purpose to involve both the non-living and living systems of the world, Pal [5] has shown the existences of these TCP, TRP and thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo. Anyone can call this TCP by any other name, but as the highly developed living system will have to be evolved in the universe in the long run and as the thought of highly developed living system appears to be a kind of force to be called the thought force (TF) in vivo, we considered it is wise to call it as TCP. Further, as the universe exists along with the universal consciousness that, in turn, is created by the quantized energy  of TCP, we had to use the term TCP.

Pal (5) expressed that the non-living system of the world is governed by the thought force (TF) in vitro and this Thought force (TF) in vitro gives rise to TF (micro), SNF, EMF, WNF, GF and TF (macro) where TF (micro) = Thought force in microcosm, SNF = Strong nuclear force, EMF = Electromagnetic force, WNF= Weak nuclear force, GF = Gravitational force and TF (macro) = Thought force in macrocosm. It is to be noted here that TF (micro) is a stronger force than the SNF and TF (macro) is a weaker force even than the GF.

Pal (5) also expressed that the living system of the world is governed by the thought force (TF) in vivo and this Thought force (TF) in vivo is a type of force that represents the biological ‘thought’ which is the action of mind. This ‘thought’ being a type of force controls the ‘thought processes’ involving the firing of neurons through the quantum mechanical activities of these TCP and TRP in the presence of consciousness. Consciousness in living organisms is a process which involves the quantum mechanical activities of these TCP and TRP, the ultimate constituents of any matter as well as any mind in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vitro and the thought force (TF) in vivo as indicated by Pal et al [3]. This consciousness, in turn, is the quantized energy  of TCP. The thought force (TF) in vivo is demonstrated in numerous experiments in which thought has an effect on a physical process (often known as mind over matter). This biological ‘thought’ is a type of force that can cause movement. Controlling movement through thought alone is observed in several experiments conducted by many scientists as indicated by Pal (5). These experiments thus signify the existence of thought force (TF) in vivo.

Pal [5] explained the existence of TF (micro) (= Thought force in microcosm). This TF (micro) is the strongest interaction (a new class of ‘extra strong’ interaction). It is stronger than SNF (Strong Nuclear Force).

Pal [5] has also shown the existence of TF (macro) (= Thought force in macrocosm). It is the "weakest force" which is much weaker even than the gravity.

2.1. Equation Expressing the Quantized Energy (εT) of TCP

Pal et al [3] developed three different equations expressing the quantized energy () of TCP. The value of in one of the three equations is shown below:

 =temperature.

This conversion of erg ≡ eV ≡ K is given by Weisskopf [6] as follows:

and

2.2. CMBR Temperature Is Due to εT , the Quantized Energy of TCP

Pal et al [3] expressed that the CMBR temperature is due to the quantized energy of TCP where

 =temperature.

As per Pal et al [3], it is interesting to note that all of the three different equations ultimately give rise to the same result that is equivalent to the CMBR temperature. A sort of relationship is thus observed between the  and the CMBR temperature. This coincidence is thus signifying a probable role of TCP on the maintenance of CMBR temperature. Further, this coincidence is also signifying the existence of these TCP in the presence of TRP. TCP cannot exist without TRP and vice versa. The presence of TCP, TRP and Thought force (TF) in the universe is thus indicated and expressed mathematically. At present we are unable to explain when and how these TCP and TRP decoupled from the primordial cosmic soup.

Pal et al [1, 3] showed that the quantized energy  of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the same. Ultimately this represents universal consciousness. The existence of CMBR temperature indicatesthe existence of the TCP in the presence of TRP. The existence of TCP ensures the existence of the thought force (TF). Further, this TF being an expression of the quantized energy () of TCP exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo.

3. What Is Life?

Life is a state of flux that is being maintained by a typical form of energy which is nothing but the consciousness itself. Pal et al [3] and Pal [7] showed that the quantized energy  of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the same. Pal et al [1, 3] and Pal [7] explained that life may be defined as a state of functional manifestation of consciousness that, in turn, is the quantized energy () of TCP. This represents universal consciousness.

Thus,

Life = f (Consciousness) = f ()          (1)

where quantized energy of the TCP .

(2)

where quantized energy of the TCP , = frequency of the TCP =,

h = Planck’s quantum constant =

c = free-space velocity of light =

= wave-length of the TCP=.

3.1. What Is Consciousness?

Psychologists, neuroscientists, philosophers, and other professionals continue to engage in an ongoing debate as to what consciousness means. In reality, we may never know. Is it a product of the biological and classical physical interactions of the human brain; or is it something more fundamental, perhaps electromagnetic, or the result of quantum physics principles that we don't yet fully understand? Could it be something even more profound than that -- something beyond the scope of science and physics, any kind of physics, for us to understand?

According to the ancient Vedanta, consciousness is not an emergent property of matter that comes into existence only through the functioning of the human nervous system. Instead, consciousness is a characteristic of reality, pervading all manifestations. This unbounded field of nature’s universal consciousness is not limited to an individual consciousness. From this viewpoint, the role of the human nervous system is to provide an appropriate material structure to individualize the universal consciousness. It appears that inanimate matter itself cannot generate consciousness without the inherent existence of universal consciousness.

Pal et al [2]explained, "Consciousness is the realization of existence, and there are as many states of consciousness as there are states of existence. Every living being has a consciousness of its own depending on complexity of the brain and the activity of the viable numbers of TCP in the presence of TRP; and the state of its consciousness changes every moment of time. Consciousness is the perception of the relation it bears to things and as this relation changes, consciousness changes its character. Consciousness itself does not change; it only moves up and down on the ‘scale of the realization’ of existence through the ‘sub-conscious’, ‘conscious’ and ‘super-conscious’ states". There is another term called unconscious state. The most usual unconscious state is sleep. A deeper form of unconsciousness is called a coma.

3.2. Consciousness May Be Defined As the ‘Self-Organized’ Capability of Any Living Being to Activate TCP and TRP

Pal et al [3] expressed that consciousness may be defined as the ‘self-organized’ capability of any living being to activate TCP and TRP, the ultimate constituents of mind and matter and to exert its functions. What can generate, maintain and activate TCP and TRP is called animate having ‘active consciousness’ and what cannot is called inanimate, i.e., devoid of active consciousness. As anything inanimate does neither have the power to activate the TCP and TRP nor have the capability to catalyze the activity of TCP and TRP, so it cannot generate consciousness. On the contrary, anything animate has the ‘self-organized’ power to generate, activate and catalyze the activity of TCP and TRP in order to generate and maintain consciousness along with the vital living force. Prigogine et al [8] explained "Self-Organization in Non-Equilibrium Systems".

Consciousness in living organisms is a process which involves the quantum mechanical activities of these TCP and TRP, the ultimate constituents of any matter as well as any mind in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vitro and the thought force (TF) in vivo as indicated by Pal et al [1, 3]. And these TCP and TRP govern the activities of neurons (not the other way round). Neurons are simply the equipments used to generate consciousness and awareness. The consciousness itself is functioning as an inter-linking agent between the animate and inanimate through the quantum mechanical activities of these TCP and TRP indicated by Pal et al [3].

3.3. Existence of Universal Consciousness

Pal et al [3] and Pal [7] showed the existence of universal consciousness and explained that the quantized energy  of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the same.

Pal et al [3] have expressed that according to the modern physicists, the universe is the summation of fields, particles, space-time continuum, dark matter, dark energy, void and all the known and unknown parameters of the universe along with all its inhabitants (with or without consciousness), although the universe is always expanding.

The method of integration indicates that

where c= a constant. Is there any mathematical fallacy if we like to use ‘universe’ in the place of ‘x’ here? If we at all theoretically like to apply the same method of integration to the whole universe itself, we will have to arrive at

where universe = universe with all its known and unknown parameters as well as its inhabitants (with or without consciousness) and c = a constant. The constituents of the universe are fields, particles, space-time continuum, dark matter, dark energy, void, all its inhabitants (with or without consciousness) and all the other unknown parameters of the universe that we have not yet faced. We simply propose to apply the method of integration theoretically over the universe as a whole with all its known and unknown parameters and all the inhabitants (with or without consciousness). If we at all theoretically like to do so, we will mathematically arrive at a constant.

What is this constant here? It is our opinion that this constant is the universal consciousness that exists throughout the universe in the form of universe wide web (uww) covering fields, particles, space-time continuum, dark matter, dark energy, void and all its known and unknown parameters along with all its inhabitants (with or without consciousness). This universal consciousness is to be taken into account, but usually ignored.

Nelson [9], Director of Global Consciousness Project, has observed through the experimentation that coherent consciousness creates order in the world; and subtle interactions link us with each other and the Earth. When human consciousness becomes coherent and synchronized, the behavior of random systems may change. Quantum event based random number generators (RNGs) produce completely unpredictable sequences of zeroes and ones. But when a great event synchronizes the feelings of millions of people, our network of RNGs becomes subtly structured. The probability is less than one in a billion that the effect is due to chance. The evidence suggests an emerging noosphere, or the unifying field of consciousness described by sages in all cultures. This evidence signifies and proves the existence of universal consciousness.

The existence of universal consciousness is explained by Radin [10] through experimentation as it is expressed in his book: "The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena." Further, Consciousness, not matter, is the ground of all existence, declares University of Oregon physicist Goswami through his published (1993) book, "The Self-Aware Universe: How Consciousness Creates the Material World".

As per Penrose [11], consciousness is a part of the universe. Van De Bogart [12]explained, "Since consciousness is a part of the universe it then follows that all consciousness, and the universe, are of the same matrix of energy fields".

Many physicists agree with the idea that consciousness is non-local, fundamental in the universe and consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. It is to be noted that , the quantized energy of TCP represents universal consciousness.

The entire Universe or the particles in it are ‘connected’ through the existence of the quantum mechanical activities of these TCP in the presence of TRP. Pal et al [3] explained that the universe exists along with the universal consciousness. This universal consciousness functions as a universe wide web (uww) covering the universe as a whole with all its parameters (including void) and inhabitants (with or without consciousness). In this picture, uww of consciousness, quantum concepts like wave particle dualism, position momentum uncertainty, nonlocality and concept of unified field become somewhat understandable as all the entities of this universe are interlinked and intertwined. In this picture, the universal consciousness replaces ether of yesteryears and contains the whole of the universe in its fold.

Consciousness in living organisms is a process which involves the quantum mechanical activities of these TCP and TRP, the ultimate constituents of any matter as well as any mind in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vitro and the thought force (TF) in vivo as indicated by Pal et al [3].

The ‘spooky action-at-a-distance’ is built in nature through the existence of the quantum mechanical activities of these TCP in the inherent presence of TRP. The spooky non-local correlations-at-a-distance might evidence a Holy Ghost at work through the existence of the quantum mechanical activities of these TCP and TRP, the ultimate constituents of any matter as well as any mind in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vitro and the thought force (TF) in vivo as indicated by Pal et al [3].

3.4. Consciousness in Short

Functional state of mind Consciousness

Functional state of the Universal Mind Universal consciousness

Consciousness is a type of energy.

Quantized energy  of TCP = Universal consciousness.

Individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the same.

Ultimately this  represents universal consciousness.

4. Possible Relation of Consciousness with Mind

Modern scientists have not even been able to arrive at a consensus on what should be a definition of the totality of consciousness. The brain is intricately linked to the process of consciousness and consciousness is thought to be a phenomenon of the mind.

It appears that

Consciousness = f (mind)           (3)

Consciousness is the functional state of mind. Presence of consciousness signifies the presence of mind and vice versa.

It is apparent that

Animate ≠ Inanimate              (4)

Three critical factors which distinguish life from non-living are consciousness, metabolism and reproduction.

In a gross presentation, we can express from the equation (4):

Animate – Consciousness = Inanimate     (5)

Scientists would have to define and characterize consciousness properly. We should have the proper knowledge about the exact characteristics of consciousness in order to address many present day scientific enigmas.

5. What is the Exact Definition of Mind? What is Mind?

We observe a great controversy concerning the exact definition of mind. There are two apparently opposite views: one is the substantial view and the other is the functional view.

In the substantial view, the mind is a type of substance. Mind is a finer matter having an autonomous existence. Mind is a single entity, perhaps having its base in the brain but distinct from it. In its most extreme form as in the Indian Upanishads and Vedanta, the mind is not only a finer matter but also it is an entity wholly separate from the body, in fact a manifestation of the soul, which will survive the body's death in the form of the spiritual body or mental body [called Linga Sharira or Sukshma Sharira in Sanskrit] as expressed by Vivekananda [13] who indicated that this mental body bears all the mental impressions. This mental body is also called ‘spirit’.

In the functional view, the mind is closely related to the functions of the brain and can have no autonomous existence beyond the brain, nor can they survive its death. In this view, mind is a ‘state’ created by the activities of the brain with other parts of the nervous system as it is indicated by cognitive neuro-scientists and Artificial Intelligence (AI) scientists. According to them ‘minds are simply what brains do’. In this functional view, mind is a subjective manifestation of consciousness: the human brain's ability to be aware of its own existence. The concept of the mind is therefore a means by which the conscious brain understands its own operations.

The modern cognitive neuroscientists generally accept the fact that the "mind" is not an isolated entity and the mind is a state created by the activities of brain with other parts of the nervous system (CNS, PNS along with ANS). Although the mind is generally accepted to be an abstract having no spatial location or public observability, yet it is a type of fine matter according to the ancient Indian Upanishads and Vedanta. The Vedanta indicates that the universe exists along with the universal consciousness. Pal et al [1, 3] explained that this universal consciousness is a functional state of the Universal Mind (UM). This UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP which, in turn, are the ultimate constituents of any matter and any mind in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo. It is to be noted that these TCP and TRP are the ultimate constituents of any matter in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vitro. And these TCP and TRP are the ultimate constituents of any mind in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vivo. Pal et al [1, 3] explained that any matter as well as any individual mind is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of Thought force (TF) in vitro and Thought force (TF) in vivo.

Modern Scientists are not yet able to understand how the brain works to make the mind. They know that brain has got neurons that communicate across synapses by releasing a neurotransmitter, and that generates electrical impulses, and the receiving neuron then talks to its neighbor neurons the same way. If the mind depends on the brain, then all aspects of the mind are going to depend on these simple electrical, chemical processes. According to this concept, the existence of the UM requires the existence of the universal brain to form the UM. The concept of universal brain is not logically acceptable. Thus the concept that the mind depends on the brain becomes questionable if the existence of the UM is valid.

5.1. Scientists Would Have to Conclude Clearly What is the Exact Definition of Mind

It appears that scientists would have to decide in a purpose to conclude clearly whether mind is a ‘state’ (created by the activities of the brain with other parts of the nervous system as it is indicated by the functional view of mind) or ‘a finer matter’ (as it is indicated by the Indian Upanishads and Vedanta).

5.2. Mind Is a Finer Matter According to the Indian Upanishads and Vedanta

It is our view that mind is a finer matter. The ultimate constituents of any mind are these TCP and TRP in the presence of thought force (TF) in vivo.

5.3. What Are the Ultimate Constituents of Any Matter?

In our view, the ultimate constituents of any matter are these TCP and TRP in the presence of thought force (TF) in vitro.

6. Special Characteristics of Mind and Consciousness

    i.        The basic mystery of the mind is how does it emerge from pure matter? How do those units that are made of tiny particles, give rise to the unique and essentially private, experience called consciousness? Do the particles that constitute our brain determine what we think and do? Do these tiny particles ultimately govern the thinking ability of the bioelectrical system? Or, are we free to have our own will? Is consciousness just froth sitting on top of the brain’s electronics? How consciousness is being operated? Why should a bunch of atoms have thinking ability? Gross answers to all these inquiries are possible if we accept these TCP and TRP as the ultimate constituents of mind and matter in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vivo and thought force (TF) in vitro as indicated by Pal et al [3]. It is to be noted that the thought force (TF) being a primordial quantum field exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo.

   ii.        Modern Scientists are not yet able to understand how the brain works to make the mind. They know that brain has got neurons that communicate across synapses by releasing a neurotransmitter, and that generates electrical impulses, and the receiving neuron then talks to its neighbors the same way. If the mind depends on the brain, then all aspects of the mind are going to depend on these simple electrical, chemical processes. According to this concept, the existence of the UM requires the existence of the universal brain to form the UM. The concept of universal brain is not logically acceptable. Thus the concept that the mind depends on the brain becomes questionable if the existence of the UM is valid.

 iii.        We are what our minds make us. The mind is a very powerful controller of the body. The mind controls everything as indicated by Pal et al [1, 3] and Pal [7]. Mind is conditioned from the time we are young. It gives our abilities, our perceptions, our character and the way we think. From science to religion, from politics to economics, everything is controlled by the human mind. We perceive, we believe and we react. Things that matter are what we think they are. The quest for truth is bafflingly elusive, after all what is the ‘truth’? We have come to the realization that if I believe it is true, it indeed is true for me, regardless of how incredible you may think it is. Experiments do not matter, arguments do not matter, reality does not matter, in fact, matter does not matter---it is all in the mind. As a joker succinctly put it, "It is a case of mind over matter—I do not mind and you do not matter". This is purely an apparent joke. Because without experiments science is useless for society. Science is based on experiments. Theory is confirmed by experiments, because only practice can validate the mathematical framework of a theory, including the concepts and idea of this theory.

 iv.        Consciousness model of Pal et al [1-3] involving TCP, TRP and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. Pal et al [3] showed that this universal consciousness is a functional state of Universal Mind (UM). Pal et al [3] explained that the UM is evolved at the Big Bang from the eternal Void. This Void, in turn, is the source of infinite energy. And this UM is a finer matter. The individual mind being a constituent of the UM is also a finer matter. The constituents of the UM and individual mind are the same. The ultimate constituents of matter and mind are the same as both mind and matter are aspects of one fundamental reality, which is called UM. The brain is the mediating link or interface between the individual mind and body. Pal et al [3] explained that the constituents of the UM are the ultimate constituents of matter itself as everything in this universe is a manifestation of this UM. Pal et al [3] expressed that the UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Pal et al [1, 3] further explained that the ultimate constituents of matter and mind are these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo.

  v.        Current scientific views regarding the origin of consciousness vary widely and range from an ‘epiphenomenon’ arising from neuronal networks, to neuronal quantum processes, to a separate undiscovered scientific entity.

 vi.        Consciousness is the functional state of mind. Presence of consciousness signifies the presence of mind and vice versa. It is to be understood that consciousness is the realization of existence and consciousness moves up and down on the ‘scale of the realization’ of existence through the ‘sub-conscious’, ‘conscious’ and ‘super-conscious’ states as indicated by Pal et al [2].

vii.        Consciousness may be defined as the ‘self-organized’ capability of any living being to activate TCP and TRP, the ultimate constituents of mind and matter and to exert its functions. What can generate, maintain and activate TCP and TRP is called animate having ‘active consciousness’ and what cannot is called inanimate, i.e., devoid of active consciousness.

viii.        Continuity of consciousness is found through the experimental observations of Parnia[14], Lommel [15], Fenwick [16]and Beauregard & O'Leary [17 & 18] and demonstrate the existence of consciousness during the cessation of brain activity and thus support the existence of universal consciousness as well as substantial view of mind as indicated by the Indian Upanishads and Vedanta.

 ix.        Everything in this universe is interlinked and intertwined through the existence of the quantum mechanical activities of these TCP in the inherent presence of TRP. Pal et al [1, 3] showed that the quantized energy  of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the same. Ultimately this represents universal consciousness. This universal consciousness functions as a universe wide web (uww) covering the universe as a whole with all its parameters (including void) and inhabitants (with or without consciousness). In this picture, uww of consciousness, quantum concepts like wave particle dualism, position momentum uncertainty, nonlocality and concept of unified field become somewhat understandable as all the entities of this universe are interlinked and intertwined. In this picture, the universal consciousness replaces ether of yesteryears and contains the whole of the universe in its fold. The ‘spooky action-at-a-distance’ may thus be built in nature through the existence of these TCP and TRP in the presence of thought force (TF).

  x.        In a purpose to conclude clearly, it appears, that scientists would have to decide whether mind is a ‘state’ (created by the activities of the brain with other parts of the nervous system as it is indicated by the functional view of mind) or ‘a finer matter’ (as it is indicated by the Indian Upanishads and Vedanta).

7. Plausible Drawbacks of the Functional View of Mind

      i.              The science of the mind may be connected with the science of the body. It is possible that the modern mind has been developed to get its present shape by the directive of the UM. The mind is an all-purpose computer responding impartially to the world around it; and this mind had, through natural selection, evolved to respond in a particular way to particular environmental circumstances. Humans are ‘adaptation executors’ carrying out programs written into the mind’s machinery long ago. "The machinery does not know its own programming", said Cosmides and Tooby [19, 20, 21], intellectual leading evolutionary psychologists. The evolutionary psychologists see the mind as pre-programmed, made up of specialized mechanisms---‘modules’ or ‘organs’. The evolutionary psychologists argue that their job is to approach the mind as an ancient engineering project, developing and testing out hypotheses about what ‘designed problems’ needed solving. Evolutionary psychologists thus signify the existence of the UM. Such an approach offers a badly needed bridge between psychology and the natural sciences. A plausible bridge between psychology and the natural sciences can be achieved through the developed consciousness model.

    ii.              Growing evidence of the continuity of consciousness demonstrates the existence of consciousness during the cessation of brain activity. In a purpose to determine the nature of human mind and consciousness as well as its relationship with the brain, Parnia[14], Lommel [15], Fenwick [16]and Beauregard & O'Leary [17 & 18] observed through different lines of experiments and through studies of cardiac arrest survivors that the cerebral functioning as measured by electrical activity of the brain ceases during cardiac arrest. Sam Parnia [14] observed in the cardiac arrest survivors that the human mind and consciousness continue to function in the absence of brain function when there is cardiac arrest. Thus observations in these studies of cardiac arrest survivors raise the possibility that human mind and consciousness may continue to function in the absence of brain function. This indicates the existence of universal consciousness. The nervous system is evolved to individualize this universal consciousness that, in turn, exists along with the universe. These experimental observations support the substantial view of mind as indicated by the Indian Upanishads and Vedanta.

   iii.              Continuity of consciousness indicates the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is to be taken into account, but usually ignored. Many physicists agree with the idea that consciousness is non-local, fundamental in the universe and consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the UM that, in turn, is a finer matter. Both, mind and matter are aspects of one fundamental and underlying reality, which is called Universal Mind (UM). The functional state of the UM is the universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. It appears that inanimate matter itself cannot generate consciousness without the inherent existence of this universal consciousness.

  iv.              As per the ancient Vedanta, everything in this universe is a manifestation of the UM. This UM is a finer matter. The individual mind being a constituent of the UM is also a finer matter. The constituents of the UM and individual mind are the same. The ultimate constituents of matter and mind are the same as both mind and matter are aspects of one fundamental reality, which is called UM. The brain is the mediating link or interface between the individual mind and body.

    v.              Pal et al [3] explained that the constituents of the UM are the ultimate constituents of matter itself as everything in this universe is a manifestation of this UM. Pal et al [3] expressed that the UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Pal et al [1, 3] further explained that the ultimate constituents of matter and mind are these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo.

  vi.              According to the Vedanta, consciousness is not an emergent property of matter that comes into existence only through the functioning of the human nervous system. Instead, consciousness is a characteristic of reality, pervading all manifestations. This unbounded field of nature’s universal consciousness is not limited to an individual consciousness. From this viewpoint, the role of the human nervous system is to provide an appropriate material structure to individualize this universal consciousness.

 vii.              The human nervous system is evolved to provide an appropriate material structure to individualize the universal consciousness, which is a characteristic of reality, pervading all manifestations. This unbounded field of nature’s ‘universal consciousness’ is not limited to an individual consciousness.

viii.              We are what our minds make us. The mind is a very powerful controller of the body. It appears that the mind controls everything. Mind exerts its role from the very beginning of life. It governs our abilities, our faculties, our perceptions, our attitudes, our character and the way we become habituated to think through the utilization of the instrumental brain.

  ix.              Freeman J. Dyson said, "It appears that mind, as manifested by the capacity to make choices, is to some extent inherent in every atom".

    x.              If mind has the capacity to make choices then this quality is demonstrated by atoms which make unpredictable choices between alternate possibilities according to the laws of quantum mechanics. "If the quality of mind is present at the atomic level, this suggests a return to the Vedantic concept of a Universal Mind (UM) which pervades all matter: a concept in agreement with the conclusion of University of Oregon physicist Amit Goswami. This UM must have been present at the inception of the universe".

  xi.              Consciousness, not matter, is the ground of all existence, declares University of Oregon physicist Goswami, echoing the mystic sages of his native India. He holds that the universe is self-aware, and that consciousness creates the physical world. Matter is an expression of mind, not separate from mind, but mind manifested materially.

 xii.              Example of three friends with different mental qualities. Let us take the popular example of a case of three friends visiting an ocean. If it is observed that one of them is frightened, other one is delighted and third person remains indifferent on the first sight of an ocean provided that they have not come in contact with the ocean before, then what should be the interpretation of mind that is related to the functions of the brain? These three different persons use their eyes and brains as the same type of instrument to look at the ocean. Here, the usual functioning of brain mechanism is not producing the same result on these three specified persons. The differences in the qualitative experiences are not due to the different functioning of the brain mechanism. The qualitative feelings are absolutely personal and mental. The brain is functioning as an instrument to generate different types of qualitative feelings in the different persons depending on their mental status. This mental status of a man is the result of the sum total of all the previous mental impressions (of previous lives) that he is not able to remember in this present life, because he has already lost all the previous brains. Further, this mental status is not the outcome of the activities of the brain with the other parts of the nervous system. The mind or the mental status does not depend on the activity of the brain. All our qualities are basically mental. If the brain is the cause and the mind is the effect, then who is controlling our mental qualities? The brain does not generate and control mental qualities. The brain is simply the biologically evolved fine instrument through which the mental impressions as well as mental qualities are expressed and maintained.

xiii.              We sometimes use the terms like ‘beautiful mind’ or ‘vicious mind’. When we say that John Nash has a ‘beautiful mind’ (vide the cinema of same name), we do not simply mean that he has a beautiful brain only. On the contrary, we like to indicate that he has a special power within himself to utilize his brain for producing beautiful results for which we conclude that he has a ‘beautiful mind’. In other words, the mental status or the inner mental power of John Nash enforces him to apply his brain in such a special way that the ultimate result is beautiful. The brain is nothing but a fine instrument through which the mind exerts its functions and the mind possesses the inner power (or mental qualities). When the mind desires to do something as per its mental impressions, it exerts its functions through the brain with other parts of the nervous system.

xiv.              Driving force of love and hate. We always find the action of ‘driving forces’ like "Attractive and Repulsive forces" which are the outcome of the emotional power of love, hate, fear and other emotional aspects of the mental world. Mind and consciousness generate and control all these driving forces. I would not like to go to a person whom I hate but I would be eager to go to a person whom I personally love. This emotional aspect of my mental world is controlling my physical movements through my nervous system. These vital interactions manifest their actions in the external physical world through the movements of the physical body. And these active interactions are controlling the physical movements of almost all the living beings, thus signifying the fact that the mind is a very powerful controller of the body.

xv.              Mind and mental qualities control the body through the utilization of the brain with other parts of the nervous system in the presence of sense organs. Strokes and fatal accidents sometimes cause complete paralysis but leave ‘thought processes’ of the victims untouched, trapping the ‘active mind’ in a motionless body. It indicates that the brain is functioning as the inter-linking device between the body and mind. It is also to be noted that human beings in ‘coma’ state do not exhibit significant consciousness in the presence of ‘life function’. This is due to the malfunction of the brain that is the proper instrument through which the mind exerts its functions with the help of TCP and TRP. These TCP and TRP are ultimately responsible to generate consciousness and awareness. Pal et al [3] expressed that the quantized energy () of the TCP represents consciousness.

xvi.              Soul (Void) exerts its functions through the finer instrument called mind. This mind, in turn, exerts its functions through the brain with other parts of nervous system (CNS, PNS along with ANS).

xvii.              The eternal Void has been covered by the mind to function as the Soul of the individual being. In the universe, behind the UM, there is a Soul (VOID). In the individual, behind the individual mind (which is a constituent of the UM), there is also a Soul (VOID). Any matter as well as any individual mind is constituted by these TCP and TRP that, in turn, are originated from the same eternal Void. Thus the individual mind is operated by these TCP and TRP that, in turn, are ultimately governed and operated by the same eternal Void. The individual mind being a constituent of the UM has covered the eternal Void to serve the role of individual ‘Soul’. This eternal Void is thus the common source and the source is still with us. This Void serves the role of Soul being covered by the mind. The mind-brain and brain-body links which are addressed by psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience and neurophysiology are, in our proposition, ultimately governed by the quantum mechanical activities of these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo. Consciousness that signifies the realization of existence is a functional state of mind.

xviii.              This Soul (VOID) being the master ruler of the body exerts its functions through the finer instrument called mind. This mind (with the help of TCP and TRP), in turn, exerts its functions through the brain with other parts of nervous system (CNS, PNS along with ANS) in the biological systems in order to grasp this physical universe, of course, in the inherent presence of consciousness. This consciousness is created and maintained by the quantum mechanical activities of these TCP in the inherent presence of TRP. Thus any matter (as well as mind) being ultimately composed of these TCP and TRP should have some sort of ‘mind’ as Dyson indicated. The more the development of the organized brain, the more the degree of manifestation of consciousness indicated by Pal et al [2]. This consciousness itself is acting as an inter-linking agent between the animate and inanimate through the quantum mechanical activities of these TCP in the presence of TRP. Thus these TCP and TRP being the ultimate constituents of mind as well as matter play the most significant roles in many present day scientific enigmas.

xix.              Consciousness in living organisms is a process which involves the quantum mechanical activities of these TCP and TRP, the ultimate constituents of matter and mind in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo expressed by Pal et al [1-3]. And these TCP and TRP govern the activities of neurons (not the other way round). These neurons are simply the equipments used to generate consciousness and awareness. The consciousness itself is functioning as an inter-linking agent between the animate and inanimate.

xx.              The quantum mechanical activities of these TCP and TRP could also explain self-organization.

xxi.              Josephson et al [22] explained that both psychokinesis and telepathy might be found in quantum physics. It is our view that both psychokinesis and telepathy can be thoroughly interpreted through the consciousness model involving the quantum mechanical activities of TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vitro and the thought force (TF) in vivo.

xxii.              It appears that the development of ‘self-organization’ is possible through the generation and maintenance of consciousness by the quantum mechanical activities of these TCP and TRP, the ultimate constituents of matter and mind in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo.

xxiii.              Conclusion of Parnia [14] is human consciousness may work independently of the brain. Just because the brain is damaged does not necessarily mean that the ''mind'' is affected. This observation indicates that consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness. This consciousness, in turn, exists along with the universe; and thus consciousness is independent of the brain. Damaged brain does not necessarily mean that the ''mind'' is affected, thereby, signifies the substantial view of mind but not the functional view of mind.

xxiv.              The notions of a person's "spirit" and "soul" often overlap, as both contrast with body and both are imagined as surviving the bodily death in religion and occultism, and "spirit" can also have the sense of "ghost" (such as demons or deities) i.e. manifestations of the spirit of a deceased person. Barking of a pet dog looking at the window in a purpose to threaten and drive out ‘something unwanted’ appears to indicate the probable presence of something or someone that is nothing but a ‘spirit’ which is a spiritual body or mental body [called Linga Sharira or Sukshma Sharira in Sanskrit] indicated by Vivekananda [13]. Usually the human eye cannot recognize this spirit or mental body, but dogs and cats can do so. Functional view of mind cannot explain the possible existence of a spirit or a mental body.

8. Characteristics of Soul (VOID), Consciousness, Mind and Brain

Consciousness model of Pal et al [1-3] involving TCP, TRP and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. Pal et al [3] showed that this universal consciousness is a functional state of the Universal Mind (UM). Pal et al [3] explained that the UM is evolved at the Big Bang from the eternal Void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). This thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness.

These TCP and TRP, the constituents of the UM and the ultimate constituents of any matter as well as any mind are conceived here to be originated from the eternal Void at the Big Bang to evolve the space-time continuum and the UM along with the universal consciousness.

Pal et al [3] explained that the eternal Void has been covered by the mind to function as the Soul of the individual being. In the universe, behind the UM, there is a Soul (VOID). In the individual, behind the individual mind (which is a constituent of the UM), there is also a Soul (VOID).

Pal et al [3] explained that Soul (Void) being the master ruler of the body exerts its functions through the finer instrument called mind. The mind (with the help of TCP and TRP) exerts its functions through the brain and spinal cord (CNS) along with the other parts of the nervous system (PNS along with ANS) in the biological systems in order to grasp this physical universe, of course, in the inherent presence of consciousness. This consciousness itself is acting as an inter-linking agent between the animate and inanimate through the quantum mechanical activities of these TCP and TRP. Consciousness is defined here as the ‘self-organized’ capability of any living being to activate TCP and TRP, the ultimate constituents of any matter as well as any mind. This consciousness, in turn, is the quantized energy  of TCP.

Any matter as well as the individual mind is constituted by these TCP and TRP that, in turn, are originated from the same eternal Void. Thus the individual mind is operated by these TCP and TRP that, in turn, are ultimately governed by the same eternal Void. The individual mind being a constituent of the UM has covered the eternal Void to serve the role of individual Soul. This eternal Void is thus the common source and the source is still with us indicated by Bhaumik [4]. This Void serves the role of Soul being covered by the mind.

9. The Relationship Between Consciousness and Vital Living Force (@ Prâna, the Indian Concept of Life Energies) as Expressed by Pal [23]

Fritjof Capra [24] expressed, "Both kinds of interconnectedness---that between mind and body and that between organism and environment---would have to be interpreted in terms of tentative notions of energy patterns. The Indian concept of ‘Prâna’ and the Chinese concept of ch’i are to be taken into account as examples of traditional terms referring to these ‘subtle energies’, or ‘life energies’. In these traditional disciplines illness is seen as resulting from changes in the patterns of energy and therapeutic techniques have been developed to influence the body’s energy system".

According to the ancient Indian Vedanta, this Universe is composed of ‘Âkâsha’ and ‘Prâna’ as indicated by Vivekananda [25]. ‘Âkâsha’ is the origin of all the observable matter. And ‘Prâna’ is the origin of all the natural fields along with vibrations (Thought). This natural field includes the ‘vital living force’ which, in turn, controls all the psychological as well as the physiological functions of all living beings of the universe. It is to be noted that this Prâna the Indian concept of ‘life energies’. And this vital living force as well as the thought force is usually ignored.

It is to be noted that Prâna (@ ‘vital living force’) thought force (TF) in vitro + thought force (TF) in vivo + TF (micro) + TF (macro).

Pal [5] explained vividly the existence of thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo and other characteristics of the thought force (TF).

Is the physical body of a living being cause of manifestation of the Soul (@Void) or ‘vital living force’ (called Prâna, the Indian concept of ‘life energies’)? What makes this body? What force causes the atoms to combine in a specific sequence and takes up specific atoms from the mass of matter around us in order to provide different shapes of different species of specific bodies of living beings? It is logical to say that the force which makes up the matter and forms the body, is the same force which is responsible for causing and maintaining the psychological as well physiological functions of the living organisms. This specific force is called "Prâna", the Indian concept of ‘life energies’. The sum-total of the energy displayed in the universe is called Prâna indicated by Vivekananda [25]. This Prâna is thought to be the ‘universal power’. The Prâna is the gross origin of all the fundamental fields including the ‘vital living force’ which controls all the psychological as well as the physiological functions of all living beings of the universe. TCP is the force-carrying particle of the original thought force (TF) which is the origin of all the existing natural fields. Thus, this "Prâna" is more or less equivalent to the original thought force (TF) which is carried by TCP in the inherent presence of TRP. Does this Prâna generate consciousness? Or does the consciousness create Prâna? Are they inter-dependent or intra-dependent? It is apparent that the consciousness being a typical form of energy can initiate the function of Prâna. Life may be defined as a state of functional manifestation of consciousness that, in turn, is the quantized energy () of the TCP. This represents consciousness.

As a separate entity, the Prâna as well as consciousness appears to be independent or they may appear to be inter-dependent; but, after the initiation of the function of Prâna in a living organism, they are intra-dependent. Thus, when this specific ‘vital living force’ is eliminated from the living organism, then that living being is said to die.

Pal [5] expressed that the thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original single primary unified field that is not only the origin of all the four fundamental fields along with both the TF (micro) and TF (macro) but also the origin of thought force (TF) in vivo.

Thus, the original thought force (TF) which is the primordial quantum field and which is an expression of the universal consciousness represents ‘Prâna’ that, in turn, is the origin of all the natural fields (including the vital living force) and TRP represents ‘Âkâsha’. This ‘Prâna’ is manifested as nerve-current as well as the biological ‘thought force’ also. And all the psychological and physiological activities are controlled and maintained by this same ‘Prâna’ itself.

9.1. Interpretation of Consciousness and Prâna (@ ‘Vital Living Force’)

Pal et al [1, 3] showed that the quantized energy  of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the same. The sameis the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). This thought force (TF) being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). Thus the thought force (TF) being an expression of the universal consciousness exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo.

The "Prâna" is the grosser form of the thought force (TF) itself with all its characteristics. Thus, all the functions of Prâna are liable to be governed by the quantum mechanical activities of these TCP in the inherent presence of TRP. This Prâna is the ‘gross origin’ of all the prevailing fundamental fields along with the ‘vital living force’ which controls all the psychological as well as the physiological functions of all living beings of the universe.

Thus Prâna (@ ‘vital living force’) thought force (TF) in vitro + thought force (TF) in vivo + TF (micro) + TF (macro).

Fritjof Capra [24] expressed, "The Indian concept of ‘Prâna’ and the Chinese concept of ch’i are to be taken into account as examples of traditional terms referring to these ‘subtle energies’, or ‘life energies’. The sum-total of the energy displayed in the universe is called Prâna indicated by Vivekananda [25]. This Prâna is thought to be the ‘universal power’.

Note: Prâna (prāṇa) is the Sanskrit word for "life force"; in yoga, Oriental medicine, and martial arts, the term refers to a cosmic energy believed to come from the sun and connecting the elements of the universe. The universal principle of energy or force, responsible for the body's life, heat and maintenance, prana is the sum total of all energy that is manifest in the universe. This life energy, Prâna has been vividly invoked and described in Vedas. In Ayurveda, tantra and Tibetan medicine "praṇā vāyu" is the basic vāyu (wind, air) from which all the other vāyus arise.

As per the BHAGAVAD-GITA (Translation and commentary by Veeraswamy Krishnaraj), Prâna is not mere breath; it is more. First we should not consider Prâna only in the context of physiological respiration: exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs. It is life; it is movement; it is being; it is nourishing; it is the primal force; it is energy. Prâna encompasses all energies discovered and yet undiscovered: it is thought, it is motion, it is gravity, it is lightening, it is energy in the atom, is the motion in the atoms, it is juice in everything. Any discovered or undiscovered energy in our body or in the universe is Prâna, call it by any name----respiration, nerve conduction, thought, gravity, magnetism. All forces originate from Prâna and all forces subside in Prâna.

9.2. Equation Expressing the "Prâna" Which Is Equivalent to the Quantized Energy (εT) of TCP

The "Prâna" is the grosser form of the original thought force (TF); its energy should be the quantized energy of the TCP (i.e. ) as it is expressed by Pal [5, 26] through the evolution of universe from the void:

Void ®ET == mTc2= hnT= hc/lT = 4.95x10-16erg  (6)

where, ET = total energy of the universe,

= quantized energy of the TCP = 4.95x10-16erg

m= quantized mass of the TCP= /c2 = 5.5 x 10– 37 g,

h = Planck’s quantum constant = 6.63 x 10 -27 erg.sec,

 uT = frequency of the TCP = 7.466 x 1010 cps,

lT = wavelength of the TCP radiated by the radiant mass of the universe = hc /= 0.4018 cm.

10. Interpretation of the Indian Concept of MANTRAS-JAPA Through the Quantum Mechanical Activities of these TCP and TRP As Expressed by Pal [27]

Pal [27] indicated that the "PRANABA" itself is the so-called "NADA BRAMHAN". Any pronounced ‘word’ has its origin to the ‘PRANABA’ / ‘ONKAR’ (OM) [i.e. "NADA BRAMHAN"]. And every pronounced ‘word’ ends in the vibration of ‘PRANABA’ / ‘ONKAR’ (OM). The ‘PRANABA’/ ‘ONKAR’ (OM) is a word as well as a ‘MANTRA’.The OM, mind and the effort to arrive at the field of consciousness should vibrate in a line so that there should be a resonance. It appears that UTF (universal thought frequency) @ frequency of the TCP @ frequency of the "Prâna" = 7.466 x 1010cps @ frequency of ONKAR (OM).

As the "Prâna" is the grosser form of the original thought force (TF), so it is apparent that the frequency of the TCP @ frequency of the "Prâna" = 7.466 x 1010 cps @ frequency of ONKAR (OM).

It is to be understood that the "PRANABA" itself is the so-called "NADA BRAMHAN". It is apparent that the original frequency of ONKAR (OM) should have the same universal thought frequency (UTF) that, in turn, is the same frequency of TCP itself that is found to be 7.466 x 1010 cps. When the frequency of pronounced "OM" attains its original frequency that, in turn, is the frequency of TCP (or the frequency of the "Prâna"), then and then only the "OM" can function as the real ‘MANTRA’. Any word can thus serve the function of ‘MANTRA’ if the frequency of the pronounced word attains the frequency of the "Prâna" or the original frequency of ONKAR [i.e. "NADA BRAMHAN"].

When it is possible to create an impression on the mind by repeated recitation of OM in a purpose to express the fact that the OM is nothing but the name or representation of the Almighty God, then and then only it is called ‘ONKAR-JAPA’. JAPA is the active process that causes mind to arrive at the primary field representing universal consciousness. Thus consciousness reveals its manifestation to our existence or self-entity through the JAPA. JAPA enforces mind to go to its origin.

11. Role of Prâna (‘Vital Living Force’ the Indian Concept of ‘Life Energies’) to Control Any Disease and Its Function to Derive a Panacea

A disease is nothing but a physiological (or psychological) disorder usually caused by the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms (including Virus) or by a congenital defect in the functional organ itself within the living organism or by mental disorder.

It is also well known that a drug /medicinal agent cannot produce any new action. It can either stimulate or depress the physiological or psychological function in order to regularize it to its normal level of function, thereby alleviating the so-called disorder or disease. A drug or medicinal agent is used to restore the normal physiological (or psychological) functions.

As the "Prâna" controls all the psychological as well as physiological functions of all the living beings, so it is easy to understand that any disorder or disharmony of the physiological (or psychological) function can be regularized to its normal level by regulating the action of "Prâna" through the ‘Prânâyâma’, the breathing exercises. The breathing exercises bring about regulation of breathing, rhythmic action of the Prâna. ‘Prânâyâma’ means the control of Prâna indicated by Vivekananda [27]. When the balance of Prâna is disturbed, what we call disease is produced. It is thus apparent that the so-called Indian HOT YOGI can survive several thousand years by developing the power to control and regulate the Prâna and thereby alleviating the physiological and psychological disorder called disease. Because the HOT YOGIS can regulate physiological and psychological disorder to its normal level of function by utilizing and applying the Prâna when there is any disease that is nothing but a physiological and/or psychological disorder.

When this Prâna works rhythmically within a functional living body, everything works properly. In tremendous physical or mental toil we become exhausted, because we use up so much Prâna. It is to be noted that this Prâna is not at all equivalent to ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) which is expressed as the "biological coin". This ATP is manufactured (in vivo) only due to the presence and action of Prâna through Krebs cycle.

The treatment through the so-called "Reiki" is a fundamental step towards developing a "panacea" by utilizing the universal power called "Prâna". A Japanese word, Reiki literally means ‘spirit energy’. It is all about energy and Reiki teachers talk of flows of energy and how to harness it. Reiki practitioners believe that cosmic energy can be channeled for healing the mind and body by touch, which vitalizes the whole system and soothes pain. It can be passed from one person to another for ‘cure’. Reiki masters say that all human beings, plants, and animals are sustained by Reiki or cosmic energy and any decrease or imbalance in the energy levels, caused due to disharmony between the various energy centers, result in sickness and disease. The cornerstone of the Reiki is considered to be the "The healing breath" practice. Through specific rhythms of the breath, it restores the natural cycles that harmonize the body, mind and emotions, and allows one’s natural healing abilities to function freely. "The only way to discover yourself is through your breath". That, in a nutshell, is the essence of "Art of Living". Reiki experts usually say, "Breath is the connection between the mind and the body. We teach people how to breath properly and thus heal the mind and body".

12. Discussion and Conclusion

12.1. Discussion

Capra [24] expressed that mind and life have become inseparably connected, with mind—or, more accurately, mental process---being immanent in matter at all levels of life. It has been obvious that getting sick and healing are both integral parts of an organism’s self-organization. Since all self-organizing activity is mental activity, the processes of getting sick and of healing are essentially mental processes. Because mental activity is a multilevel pattern of processes, most of them taking place in the unconscious realm we are not always aware of how we move in and out of illness, but this does not alter the fact that illness is a mental phenomenon in its very essence. Hence it is apparent that all disorders are psychosomatic in the sense that they involve the continual interplay of mind and body in their origin, development, and cure.

In our proposition, the evolution of life and consciousness is possible due to the directive of the UM the functional state of which is the universal consciousness. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP. The quantum mechanical activities of these TCP and TRP are responsible for creating RNA/DNA to evolve life as well as consciousness. We propose that the thought force (TF) which is carried by the TCP is the origin of all the existing fields when TRP would be found to be the origin of all the existing matter particles. Pal [27] explained that the "Prâna" is the grosser form of the thought force (TF). Thus, all the functions of Prâna are liable to be governed by the quantum mechanical activities of the TCP in the inherent presence of TRP. This Prâna is the ‘gross origin’ of all the prevailing fundamental fields along with the ‘vital living force’. If the force-carrying particle of this "Prâna" is thoroughly established and fully characterized, then this "Prâna" can be utilized as a "panacea" to cure any disease. It is probable that the TCP itself would be found to be the exact force-carrying particles responsible for this specific "interaction" called "Prâna".

As the "Prâna" is the grosser form of the thought force (TF), so it is found from the Equation (6) that "Prâna" should have a frequency of. The mechanical generation and specific utilization of this characteristic specific frequency may provide guidelines to develop a panacea to cure any physiological (or psychological) disharmony or a disorder called disease.

12.2. Conclusion

It has already been shown that

Prâna (@ ‘Vital living force’) thought force (TF) in vitro + thought force (TF) in vivo + TF (micro) + TF (macro).

Pal [5] explained vividly the existence of thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo and other characteristics of the thought force (TF).

The sum-total of the energy displayed in the universe is called Prâna indicated by Vivekananda [25]. This Prâna is thought to be the ‘universal power’. The Prâna is the gross origin of all the fundamental fields including the ‘vital living force’ which controls all the psychological as well as the physiological functions of all living beings of the universe. TCP is the force-carrying particle of the original thought force (TF) which is the origin of all the existing natural fields. Thus, this "Prâna" is more or less equivalent to the original thought force (TF) which is carried by TCP in the inherent presence of TRP. Does this Prâna generate consciousness? Or does the consciousness create Prâna? Are they inter-dependent or intra-dependent? It is apparent that the consciousness being a typical form of energy can initiate the function of Prâna. Life may be defined as a state of functional manifestation of consciousness that, in turn, is the quantized energy () of the TCP. This represents consciousness.

As a separate entity, the Prâna as well as consciousness appears to be independent or they may appear to be inter-dependent; but, after the initiation of the function of Prâna in a living organism, they are intra-dependent. Thus, when this specific ‘vital living force’ is eliminated from the living organism, then that living being is said to die.

Pal [5] expressed that the thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original single primary unified field that is not only the origin of all the four fundamental fields along with both the TF (micro) and TF (macro) but also the origin of thought force (TF) in vivo.

Thus, the original thought force (TF) which is the primordial quantum field and which is an expression of the universal consciousness represents ‘Prâna’ that, in turn, is the origin of all the natural fields (including the vital living force) and TRP represents ‘Âkâsha’. This ‘Prâna’ is manifested as nerve-current as well as the biological ‘thought force’ also. And all the psychological and physiological activities are controlled and maintained by this same ‘Prâna’ itself.

The "Prâna" is the grosser form of the original thought force (TF); its energy should be the quantized energy of the TCP (i.e. ) as it is expressed by Pal [5, 26] through the evolution of universe from the void as shown in the Formula number 6.

It has already been expressed that

Functional state of mind ≡ Consciousness

Functional state of the Universal Mind ≡ Universal consciousness

Consciousness is a type of energy.

Quantized energy  of TCP = Universal consciousness = = mTc2= hnT= hc/lT= 4.95x10-16erg           (7)

Individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the same.

Ultimately this represents universal consciousness.

The "Prâna" is the grosser form of the original thought force (TF); its energy should be the quantized energy of the TCP (i.e. ). Thus the energy of "Prâna" =

= Universal consciousness= = mTc2= hnT= hc/lT= 4.95x10-16erg                (8)

Thus it appears that the energy of "Prâna" == Universal consciousness                 (9)

It is apparent that there is a relationship between the energy of "Prâna" and Universal consciousness.

"Prâna"  Universal consciousness.

Thus consciousness model "Prâna" model

It is to be indicated that Pal et al [3] explained: "It has been experimentally observed in the field of "biophotonics" (Popp, 1992, 1994, 1998) that living beings including human being emit microwaves constantly and regularly in a particular pattern which may be responsible for maintaining not only the ‘metabolism’ along with ‘consciousness’ but also for maintaining the universal existence. This microwave radiation is due to the emission of a type of photons usually called "biophotons" which, in our view, are nothing but the postulated TCP and TRP.

It can also be shown by calculation that the biological systems would have to emit microwaves having of the order of the quantized energy of TCP radiated by the radiant mass of this universe. The cosmic microwave background radiation temperature signifies the existenceof the TCP, TRP and thought force (TF). Bohm’s ‘Implicate Order’, which can enfold the primary field and consciousness, also signifies the possible existence of these TCP, TRP and Thought force (TF) that, in turn, may function as the primary unified field."

It is wise here to mention "Alpha Sphere and Omega Sphere" which is a kind of cloud that is present in all animate beings. Further, we like to include the existence of Noosphere [28] which is the collective-consciousness sphere above earth as detected by Princeton University Research Project on Random Number Generators in association with Institute of Noetical Sciences in the US.

Thus it is apparent that consciousness model "Prâna" model


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