Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 2, March 2016, Pages: 15-18

Study on Prevalence of Fascioliasis in Ruminants in Dasht Room County in Spring and Summer of 2013

Moshfe Abdolali1, Rezaei Nasrabad Seyed Abbas2, Cheraghzadeh Seyed Reza1, Arefkhah Nasir3,
Zare Khafri Roohollah2, Moein Masood2, Parhizgari Najmeh2, Jamshidi Ali3, *

1Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran

2Student Research Committee, Yasuj of University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran

3Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran

Email address:

(Jamshidi A.)
(Jamshidi A.)

*Corresponding author

To cite this article:

Moshfe Abdolali, Rezaei Nasrabad Seyed Abbas, Cheraghzadeh Seyed Reza, Arefkhah Nasir, Zare Khafri Roohollah, Moein Masood, Parhizgari Najmeh, Jamshidi Ali. Study on Prevalence of Fascioliasis in Ruminants in Dasht Room County in Spring and Summer of 2013. Animal and Veterinary Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2016, pp. 15-18. doi: 10.11648/j.avs.20160402.11

Received: January 14, 2016; Accepted: January 25, 2016; Published: March 12, 2016


Abstract: Fasciola spp is one of the liver bile ducts and gallbladder Trematodes in Ruminants. In the life cycle of the worm, snails are intermediate hosts and parasitic infection is happened by eating aquatic vegetables contaminated with Metacercaria. Humans also can be infected with this worm. Thus, Finding the contaminated villages where high infection in animals is reported, can help to control diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of Fascioliasis in Ruminants in 2013 in Dasht Room area, a rural district in Yasuj prevalence. This cross - sectional study, a total of 600 stool samples from Ruminants, including sheep, goat and cattle were collected from six villages in Dasht Room region. The stool samples were transported to the Parasitology laboratory and tested by standard Acid - Ether precipitation method (Thelman method). Sediments were studied with an optical microscope at magnifications of ×10. 174 out of 600 stool samples (29%) were positive for Fasciola spp eggs, including 63 sheep (26/03%), 40 goats (23/3%) and 71 cattle (37/9%), respectively. Significant differences between the infection rates of live stocks were not observed in spring and summer season. The most contamination was observed in cattle and the least in goat. Statistically significant difference was observed between them in summer season (P <0/05). Considering to high contamination in the present study (29%), Dasht Room County is a high risk area for Fasciolosis in Ruminants.

Keywords: Fascioliasis, Ruminants, Iran


1. Introduction

Liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica; Trematoda: Fasciolidae) are flatworm helminths which cause the disease Fasciolosis in Ruminants and humans [1]. Fasciolosis in important food born and water born parasitic zoonosis caused by liver fluke of the genus Fasciola [2], the Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, are cosmopolitan in distribution, with high frequency in tropical area [3]. Fasciola spp. may reach the size of (25–30) mm in length and (8 – 15) mm width. It has leaf shaped Structure [4]. Fasciola spp has an interior and posterior sucker for attachment to host body [5]. Fasciola spp completed its entire life cycle in two host cattle, a definitive host, and the snail, an intermediate host, while the human is an accidental host, which causes disease mostly in ruminants, especially in cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats. It may however affect human. These parasites inhabit the hepatobiliary system of the effected animal and rarely can be found in ectopic sites within the host body such as: lungs, diaphragm, intestinal wall, kidneys, and subcutaneous tissue can occur. Once the parasites eggs are ingested by the cattle by the occasional drinking or grazing, and then the parasites migrate through the liver parenchyma to reach the bile duct. The diagnosis of fasciolosis in ruminant caused by Fasciola spp. has been made solely by the detection of Fasciola eggs in the faces of infected animal [1, 4, 6-10]. The worldwide losses in animal productivity due to fasciolosis were estimated as US $200 million per annum to rural agricultural communities and commercial producers with over 600 million animals infected. In developed counties, the incidence of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica can reach up to 77%. In tropical countries, fasciolosis is considered the single most important helminthes infection of cattle [11-13], with reported prevalence of 30–90%. In domestic ruminants, adverse effects of acute or chronic fasciolosis include decreased meat and milk production, decreased fertility, and increased veterinary costs [14]. Fasciolosis is one of the big and most important worldwide problems mainly due to mortality of animals, cost of diagnosis, and treatment of condemned liver and it reduces milk and meat production [15, 16], fertility disorder, and drug resistance against fasciolosis [17]. Fasciolosis is estimated to be responsible for the annual loss of thousands of dollars in the Iranian agricultural industries. In Iran, fasciolosis in domestic ruminants is mainly caused by F. hepatica; however, the occurrence of F. gigantica has also been reported from different parts of the country [18]. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica infection in ruminants in 2013 in Dasht Room area, a rural district in Yasuj (Yasuj is a city in and the capital of Kohgiluye and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 96,786, in 20,297 families. Yasuj is an industrial city in the Zagros Mountains of southwestern Iran. The term "Yasuj" is also used to refer to the entire region).

2. Materials and Methods

This cross - sectional study, a total of 600 stool samples from three types of animals including sheep, goat and cattle were collected from six villages (Amir Abad, Hossein Abad, Jahan Abad, Talkhdan, Tangari, Mansoor Abad) in Dasht Room region in spring and summer 2013(May &August). The stool samples were transported to the laboratory and tested by standard Acid - ether precipitation method (Thelman method). Sediments were studied with an optical microscope at magnifications of ×10. Data collected on the application EPI 2000 entered using the chi-square test (Chi-square) were analyzed. In This test, the chance of infection (Odds Ratio), Chi-square and P-value was evaluated and the amount of contamination in rural areas Dasht Room to separate species Fasciola spp, the seasonal pollution, and conflicts with the statistical comparison is kind of trap.

3. Results and Discussion

174 out of 600 stool samples (29%) were positive for Fasciola spp eggs, including 63 sheep (26/03%), 40 goats (23/3%) and 71 cattle (37/9%), respectively. Significant differences between the infection rates of ruminants were not observed in spring and summer seasions. The most infection was observed in Tangari and the least in Mansoor Abad villages with statistically significant differences (P <0/05). The most contamination was observed in cattle and the least in goat. Statistically significant difference was observed between them in summer seasion (P <0/05). The results of this study, by sampling season, type of ruminants and annual pollution listed in the tables below.

Table 1. The contamination of ruminants in the spring.

Village name ruminants No. of samples No. Fasciola spp. Positive Percent of Infection
Amir Abad Sheep 22 3 13.6%
Goat 8 0 0
Cattle 20 2 10%
Jahan Abad Sheep 23 9 39.1%
Goat 18 9 50%
Cattle 9 6 66.6%
Hossein Abad Sheep 24 10 41.6%
Goat 18 4 22.2%
Cattle 8 4 50%
Tangari Sheep 21 4 19.04%
Goat 17 6 35.2%
Cattle 12 8 66.6%
Mansoor Abad Sheep 24 5 20.8%
Goat 14 2 14.2%
Cattle 12 7 58.3%
Talkhdan Sheep 4 0 0
Goat 9 2 22.2%
Cattle 37 8 21.6%
Total Sheep 118 300 31 89 26.2% 29.6%
Goat 84 23 27.3%
Cattle 98 35 35.7%

Table 2. The contamination of ruminants in the summer.

Village name Ruminants No. of samples No. Fasciola spp. Positive Percent of Infection
Amir Abad Sheep 19 7 36.8%
Goat 9 1 11.1%
Cattle 22 12 54.5%
Jahan Abad Sheep 23 3 13.04%
Goat 25 6 24%
Cattle 2 1 50%
Hossein Abad Sheep 31 4 12.9%
Goat 6 1 16.6%
Cattle 13 3 23.07%
Tangari Sheep 23 9 39.1%
Goat 16 7 43.75%
Cattle 11 4 36.3%
Mansoor Abad Sheep 10 2 20%
Goat 19 1 5.2%
Cattle 21 2 9.5%
Talkhdan Sheep 18 7 38.8%
Goat 12 1 8.3%
Cattle 20 14 70%
Total Sheep 124 300 32 85 25.8% 28.3%
Goat 87 17 19.5%
Cattle 89 36 40.4%

Table 3. The contamination of ruminants in the 2013 (spring and summer).

Village name Ruminants No. of samples No. Fasciola spp. Positive Percent of Infection
Amir Abad Sheep 41 10 24.3%
Goat 17 1 5.8%
Cattle 42 14 33.3%
Jahan Abad Sheep 46 12 26.08%
Goat 43 15 34.8%
Cattle 11 7 63.6%
Hossein Abad Sheep 55 14 25.4%
Goat 24 5 20.8%
Cattle 21 7 33.3%
Tangari Sheep 44 13 29.5%
Goat 33 13 39.3%
Cattle 23 12 52.1%
Mansoor Abad Sheep 34 7 20.5%
Goat 33 3 9.09%
Cattle 33 9 27.2%
Talkhdan Sheep 22 7 31.6%
Goat 21 3 14.2%
Cattle 57 22 38.5%
Total Sheep 242 600 63 174 26.03% 29%
Goat 171 40 23.3%
Cattle 187 71 37.9%

Compared with previous studies by "Moshfe et al, 2003" in Yasuj’s Slaughterhouse (the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica was investigated and it was concluded that 27490 (14.4%) domesticated animals out of the total number 190861 slaughtered domestic animals including sheep, goats and cattle has been infected by this parasite. Infection rate was (9.26%). The prevalence rate of infection in sheep (17.71%) was higher than the one in cattle (16.71%) and in goats (11.69%)), this study showed high prevalence of Fasciola spp in ruminants, in Dasht Room area (29%), due to high human population and proximity to the city of Yasuj and slaughterhouse is very important [19]. as a result of positive human serum against F. hepatica parasites in the area of Sarkari et al and the contamination of livestock in the study should Dasht Room one of the areas at risk and to prevent the high incidence knew Fasciolosis Awareness of the disease is serious action [20].

4. Conclusion

In general, previous studies and this study in Iran and other country it appears that the peak of infection is in the spring and summer growing season and abundance of aquatic plants and associated spring cattle and pasture, there is the issue of the season with this parasite struggle It is important [21]. Since most species of snails as an intermediate host in Iran live in fresh water and aquatic plants use water springs and ponds in the area with wild plants suitable place to live snails in the spring and summer Dasht Room provide [22]. According to previous studies mentioned results, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad as provincial livestock and ruminants susceptible to infection by Fasciola spp. The growth of the disease among cattle and human serum have been reported in the province and the city of Yasuj and Dasht Room area, the importance of preventing the common disease between humans and animals is necessary. Significant contamination of cattle ranchers in this study focus on the use of anti-parasitic drugs in this type of trap is needed because the financial losses will be even more significant. In this study it was found that Tangari village that is almost Dasht Room source of river pollution is more that people in these village officials require pollution prevention even in other villages. In this study there was no significant seasonal differences, though the prevalence in the present study compared with previous studies in the spring and summer transfer chance to show that a quarter of awareness of short duration can the cycle of life and the transition Fasciola spp did two seasons prevention.

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by Yasuj University of Medical Science. Study concept and design: Abdolali Moshfe, Seyed Abbas Rezaei Naserabad and Seyed Reza Cheraghzade. Acquisition of data: Seyed Abbas RezaeiNaserabad, Seyed Reza Cheraghzade, Nasir Arefkhah, Roohollah Zare Khafri, Masood Moein and Najmeh Parhizgari. Analysis and interpretation of data: Abdolali Moshfe, Seyed Abbas RezaeiNaserabad and Seyed Reza Cheraghzade. Drafting of the manuscript: Ali Jamshidi. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Abdolali Moshfe and Ali Jamshidi.


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