Higher Education Research
Volume 1, Issue 1, December 2016, Pages: 19-22

Assessing the Constraints Militating Against the Effective Implementation of Vocational and Technology Education Programme in Tertiary Institutions in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Festus Chukwunwendu Akpotohwo*, Bumien Victor Yabrifa, Cletus Ogeibiri

Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Faculty of EducationNiger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Yenagoa, Nigeria

Email address:

(F. C. Akpotohwo)

*Corresponding author

To cite this article:

Festus Chukwunwendu Akpotohwo, Bumien Victor Yabrifa, Cletus Ogeibiri. Assessing the Constraints Militating Against the Effective Implementation of Vocational and Technology Education Programme in Tertiary Institutions in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Higher Education Research. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2016, pp. 19-22. doi: 10.11648/j.her.20160101.13

Received: October 26, 2016; Accepted: November 12, 2016; Published: December 8, 2016


Abstract: The study examines constraints militating against the effective implementation of vocational and technology education programme in tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State. The study adopted descriptive survey design because it sought to elicit from the respondents constraints on the effective implementation of vocational and technology education in tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State. The population for this study consists of all the students in the department of vocational and technology education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State. Simple random sampling technique was used to select two-hundred and four (204) students as respondents for the study. A structured questionnaire titled "Constraints Militating against the Effective Implementation of Vocational and Technology Education (CMEIVTE)" was used in eliciting information from the respondents. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation. Based on the findings the following recommendation among others was made; Adequate funds should be made available by all levels of government to the various institutions.

Keywords: Constraints, Implementation, Vocational and Technology Education, Tertiary Institutions

1. Introduction

Vocational technology education includes preparation for employment in any occupation for which specialized education is required, for which there is a societal need, and which can be most appropriately done in schools. This form of education is concerned with the entire hierarchy of occupation from those that require relatively short periods of specialized preparation to those that require two or more years of specialized education. This includes the entire spectrum of the work force from semi-skilled workers to technicians and paraprofessionals.

Okorie, [1] defined vocational education as that form of education, which develops the mental and physical qualities of people thereby increasing their skills, knowledge and attitudes required for utilizing the natural resources needed for economic development of the nation and for their own self improvement. Thomas, & Robbers, [2] stressed that the totality of vocational and technology education programme is to create jobs and only programmes that result in employment that is satisfying to the employee and the employer can be justified as the only feasible policy that is capable of creating wealth in the society.

Vocational and technical education is a form of education that seeks to prepare persons for employment in recognized occupations. This type of education provides the skills, knowledge and attitudes necessary for effective employment. Odogwu, [3] describes vocational education as a type of education that emphasizes preparation and participation in an occupation of social value. Contrasted with general education, vocational education is skill-oriented and trains both the head and the hands [4]. Federal Republic of Nigeria, [5] further describes vocational education as that aspect of education that leads to the acquisition of practical skills as well as applied scientific knowledge. According to [5], Technical and Vocational Education are used as a comprehensive term which refers to those aspects of the education process that involve, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills, attitude, understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of the economic and social life.

The factors working against the effective actualization of vocational education goals in Nigeria are many [6]. The problems were earlier identified by [4]. These include: strong bias towards vocational subjects; quality and quantity of personnel; management problems; curriculum/teaching methods; student factors; poor funding; inadequate/obsolete facilities and equipment among others. It was against this background that the study was conducted to determine the constraints militating against the effective implementation of vocational and technology education programme in tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

1.1. Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to identify the constraints militating against the effective implementation of vocational and technology education in tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Specifically, the study sought to;

i.   Determine the extent to which inadequate funding poses a constraint to the effective implementation of vocational and technology education programme in tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State.

ii.   Determine the extent to which inadequate equipment and instructional materials poses a constraint to the effective implementation of vocational and technology education programme in tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State.

iii.   Determine the extent to which lack of qualified teaching personnel poses a constraint to the effective implementation of vocational and technology education programme in tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State.

1.2. Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide this study;

i.   To what extent does inadequate funding poses a constraint to the effective implementation of vocational and technology education programme in tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State?

ii.   To what extent does inadequate equipment and instructional materials poses a constraint to the effective implementation of vocational and technology education programme in tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State?

iii.   To what extent does lack of qualified teaching personnel poses a constraint on the effective implementation of vocational and technology education programme in tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State?

2. Materials and Methods

The study adopted descriptive survey design because it sought to elicit from the respondents constraints on the effective implementation of vocational and technology education in tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State. The population for the study consists of all the 511 students in the department of vocational and technology education, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State. Simple random sampling technique was used to select two-hundred and four (204) students as respondents for the study representing 40 percent of the population. A structured questionnaire titled "Constraints Militating against the Effective Implementation of Vocational and Technology Education (CMEIVTE)" was used in eliciting information from the respondents. The questionnaire items were rated using a four point likert scale and nominal values were assigned thus; Strongly Agree (4) Agree (3) Disagree (2) Strongly Disagree(1). The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation. The instrument for data collection was subjected to face validation by experts in measurement and evaluation in the Department of Teacher Education in Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State. The observations and suggestions made by the experts were used to improve the final copy of the instrument. The questionnaires were administered to the respondents by the researcher and through research assistants. The questionnaires were retrieved immediately for analysis. Thus, a hundred percent retrieval achievement was recordedThe data collected based on the questionnaire was analyzed using mean and standard deviation.

2.1. Presentation of Results

Answers to Research Questions

Research Question 1:To what extent does inadequate funding poses a constraint to the effective implementation of vocational and technology education programme in tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State?

Table 1. Inadequate funding as a constraint in the effective implementation of vocational and technology education.

S/N Items X S.D Remarks
1. Both government and private individuals should be responsible for the funding of vocational and technology education in tertiary institution 3.56 0.67 Agreed
2. Vocational and Technology education is the greatest beneficiary in the new dispension 3.27 0.90 Agreed
3. The level of funding for Vocational and Technology education programme in Niger Delta University has been a worrisome issue. 3.36 0.75 Agreed
4. Lack of adequate government funding leads to collapse of Vocational and Technology Education in tertiary institutions 3.49 0.79 Agreed

Data presented in table 1 above shows that the mean for items 1, 2, 3, 4 exceeded the criterion level of 2.50. The mean for these items ranged from 3.27 to 3.56, which is above the criterion level. They are therefore interpreted agreed which implies that inadequate funding affect the effective implementation of vocational and technology education.

Research Question 2:To what extent does inadequate equipment and instructional materials poses a constraint to the effective implementation of vocational and technology education programme in tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State?

Table 2. Availability of equipment and instructional materials as a constraint to the effective implementation of Vocational and Technology Education.

S/N Items X S.D Remarks
1 Instructional Materials are very useful in Vocational and technology education. 3.37 0.75 Agreed
2 It is required that instructional materials must be available for impacting knowledge to vocational education students in tertiary institution. 3.53 0.66 Agreed
3 Instructional materials improve understanding and knowledge of the learners. 3.37 0.71 Agreed
4 Performance of vocational and technology education are centered on performance. 3.35 0.77 Agreed

From table 2 above, it is observed that the mean for all the items exceeded the cut-off point of 2.50. The mean for the items ranged from 3.37 to 3.53; hence, all the statements in these items where agreed by the respondents. This implies that, the availability of equipments and instructional materials affect the implementation of vocational and technology education.

Research Question 3: To what extent does lack of qualified teaching personnel poses a constraint on the effective implementation of vocational and technology education programme in tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State?

Table 3. Lack of qualified teaching personnel as a constraint on the effective implementation of vocational and technology education programme in tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State.

S/N Items X S.D Remarks
1 Employment of qualified teachers in vocational and technology education will help the effective implementation and administration of the programme. 3.34 0.82 Agreed
2 Vocational and technology education is limited to the extent of the experience of its teachers in the application of their skills and knowledge. 3.29 0.81 Agreed
3 Vocational and technology education is perpetually depended on teachers and quantity falls below expectation. 3.34 0.65 Agreed
4 Organization of seminars and workshops for teachers of vocational and technology education is very important and will be of great help to the programme. 3.23 0.86 Agreed

Data presented in the table 3 above shows that the mean for items 1, 2, 3, and 4, exceeded the criterion level of 2.50.

The mean ranged from 3.23 to 3.34, which is above the criterion level. They are therefore interpreted as agreed, which implies that lack of qualified teaching personnel militate against the effective implementation of vocational education. In contrast, the mean for item 16 of 1.46 which is below criterion level of 2.50, disagreed that lack of qualified teaching personnel does not militate against the effective implementation of vocational education.

2.2. Discussion of Findings

The discussion of the findings strictly followed the research questions of the study. Firstly, the study revealed that inadequate funding affect the effective implementation of vocational and technology education. Inadequate is a major problem facing educational institutions in Nigeria and vocational and technology education is not left out. In this regard Aghenta, [7] opined that the success of any school system depends on the amount of resources available to it. This is also supported by Adepoju, [8], that money is an input of any educational system that provides the essential purchasing power with which the system acquires its human and physical inputs.

The study also revealed that the availability of equipment and instructional materials is also very important to the implementation of vocational education. The importance of equipment and instructional materials in the implementation of vocational education cannot be over-emphasized. Instructional materials improve the knowledge and understanding of the learners, [9].

In the same vein, the study revealed that lack of qualified teaching personnel militates against the effective implementation of vocational education. [10], the most acute problem of any education system is shortage of qualified teachers. This does not mean lack of teaching personnel but lack of qualified teaching personnel. In most universities for example, most teachers and lecturers are not competent enough to develop standard materials for study, rather they depend on Google work to download, format and print to teach their classes.

3. Conclusion

Based on the findings the following conclusions are drawn:

(1)   Inadequate funding poses a constraint to the effective implementation of Vocational and Technology Education Programmein Niger Delta University

(2)   Lack of qualified teaching personnel also militates against the effective implementation of Vocational and Technology Education Programme in Niger Delta University.

(3)   Unavailability of equipments and instructional materials poses as a constraint to the effective implementation of Vocational and Technology Education Programme.

Recommendations

Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made;

(1)   Adequate funds should be made available by all levels of government to the various institutions.

(2)   State Government should invest more on the Vocational and Technology Education Programme.

(3)   Only qualified teachers should be employed to teach vocational and technology education courses in Niger Delta University

(4)   Equipment and instructional materials should be made available for the teaching and learning of vocational courses

Acknowledgements

The researchers wish to acknowledge students in the department of Vocational and Technology Education, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island for their cooperation in their quick response to the questionnaires.


References

  1. Okorie, J. U., (2001): Vocational industrial education. Bauchi: League of Researchers in Nigeria.
  2. Thomas S., & Robbers, E.N. (1973): Parents and students perception of occupational survival skills. Vocational guidance quarterly 25(3) 217-224.
  3. Odogwu, A. C. (2005). An Introduction to Vocational and Technical Education in Nigerian Schools and Colleges, Owerri: Nigeria Wisdom People Publishers.
  4. Oranu, R. N (1994). Problems ofVocational/Technical Education. A Lead paper presented at the National Conference on Vocational/Technical Education. Held at Federal College of Education (Technical), Umunze from 22nd to24th August.
  5. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National Policy on Education. Lagos: GovernmentPress.
  6. Adenuga, B. A. (2005). Vocational and Technical Education for Self Sustenance among Nigerian Youths. Proceedings of the 18th annual national conference ofNational Association of Teachers of Technology (NATT). Rivers 2005.
  7. Nduka, R. (2001).Vocational Education: A Veritable Instrument for Poverty Alleviationin Nigeria. A paper presented at the 6th Annual National Conference of the Association of Women in Colleges of Education (WICE) held at Federal College of Education Eha- Amufu, Enugu State from 13th-16th November.
  8. Aghenta, J. A. (2003). Towards a System Approach to the Plaaning of Secondary School Education, Ibadan: AD & K Publishers Limited.
  9. Adepoju T. L. (2002). Quality control of UBE in Nigeria; Policy Option, Lagos: I.K Ltd.
  10. Tammy, T. O. (2001). The Rationale for Instructional Physical Education in the Universal Basic Education Programme. Owerri; Springfield Ltd.
  11. Ma’aji, C. Z. (2004). The Roots and Problems of Vocational Education in Nigeria. Enugu: Nsukka press ltd.

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