International Journal of Management and Fuzzy Systems
Volume 1, Issue 1, June 2015, Pages: 1-6

Cultural Paradigms of the Citizen in Project Management

Reza Keshavarz Norozpour

Young Researchers and Elite Club, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

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To cite this article:

Reza Keshavarz Norozpour. Cultural Paradigms of the Citizen in Project Management. International Journal of Management and Fuzzy Systems. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2015, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.11648/j.ijmfs.20150101.11

Abstract: Culture is one the important component in the city. Our views on the world are disparate and, although sciences comprehend parts of the world's rationality, this comprehension is not all-encompassing. In other hands, the concept of "city" and "management" shown sustainable cities programme (SCP) for all aspects related of city. Therefore, in order to improve life conditions, environmental sustainability, economics and etc., we need strong approaches for city managing. In this paper, we first review some important concepts, then we proposed some strategy for reinforcement of the sustainable cities, that is cities management.

Keywords: Cultural Paradigms (CPs), Citizen, Programming, Project Management, Sustainable Cities Programme (SCP)

1. Introduction

Cities instead of being useless places for economic, social and ecological environment investments; must be the centers of economic and social development.

Project management must establish an organizational structure which allows a project to be managed by its agreed objectives with respect to its technology, its contributors and the environment in which it takes place.

Green buildings are constructed based on the principles of sustainable construction, which addresses the ecological, social and economic issues of a building in the context of its community. These buildings are designed and built to use less energy and resources than traditional buildings and aim to minimize their impacts on the environment (Yudelson, 2008). According to the 2nd Green Building Masterplan by the Building and Construction Authority (BCA, 2009a), the number of Green Mark certified buildings in Singapore has increased from 130 in 2007 to 250 in 2008. These figures suggest that with increasing awareness of the importance of green building construction, many developers have embarked on the green journey and committing themselves to be BCA Green Mark certified. Along with the augmenting prominence of green construction, growing emphasis has been placed on the project management approaches of green building construction.

Due to the varieties of projects in the country and achieve the goals must use the correct way to manage complexes. Therefore, comprehensive look at the issues and problems in each project is necessary. In this regard we should review various ways and select a suitable solution for existing problems to reach the goals sets. Consequently, in this research has been role and effect of project management in creating dynamic spaces, Cultural integration, management and good governance expressed human complex.

In this paper, we first review some important concepts that all citizen should be known, then we proposed some strategy for reinforcement of the sustainable cities, that is cities management.

The rest of paper organized as following:

In section 1, we review some main concepts. Section 2, we proposed some strategy for reinforcement of the sustainable cities. We concluded in section 3.

2. Basic Concept

In this section, we briefly describe some basic concept which it’s necessary.

2.1. Cultural Paradigms

People within a culture share the same set of assumptions and similar expectations in how they perceive the world. That is their cultural paradigm.

The paradigm concept entered everyday language after the mid sixties, when Thomas Kuhn, one of the most influential philosophers of science of the last century, published his book ‘The Structure of Scientific Revolutions’. He explained that ‘normal science’ works within the current paradigm, and ‘revolutionary science’ occurs when there is a paradigm shift to another paradigm.  The previous paradigm may remain as a special case in the ‘new’ paradigm. An example is Newton's physics remained as a special case in Einstein's physics.

Cultural paradigms are all-embracing ‘ways of life’ whereby communities are given shape. At the same time, these paradigms remain fluid enough to allow for diffusion and penetration of the ‘other’ and even pollination by the other; what we otherwise call affinity to relate. Thus, individuals can experience the collective validation of living and thinking within a paradigm that is also embraced as truth by others, while contributing to the evolution of this description of truth. For Information Theory, which arose within the modern scientific culture, truth is defined as logic which is graspable in tautological or analytic sentences (e.g., ones that are empirically verified) (Nikos 2005).

The meaning of the term paradigm is not an easy concept. Although a definition can be given, a more practical explanation of the paradigm concept was well illustrated by Donella Meadows writing in her weekly column, "The Global Citizen":

Your paradigm is so intrinsic to your mental process that you are hardly aware of its existence, until you try to communicate with someone with a different paradigm.

The definition of a paradigm is a bit convoluted:

A philosophical and theoretical framework of a scientific school or discipline within which theories, laws, and generalizations and the experiments performed in support of them are formulated.

Or, a bit more down to earth:

The framework of ideas and beliefs by which an individual interprets the world and interacts with it.

The Oxford English Dictionary defines a paradigm as, "a world view underlying the theories and methodology of a particular scientific subject."

2.2. Project and Project Management

The project management institute (1996) defines a project as "a temporary endeavor to create a unique product or service". Project management is considered to be the primary means to implement organizational strategy (Grundy 1998, Kenny, 2003).

Organizations function through the disciplines of strategy, structure, processes, and projects, all of which influence and depend on each other to perform (Van Der Merwe 2002). Projects are acknowledged as unique units of work that implement the policies and strategies of an organization. The role of the project manager is therefore becoming increasingly important in developing and executing organizational strategies through project delivery.

Project definition is known to the construction industry as strategic facility planning, client briefing, needs assessment, requirements processing, and project programming as traditionally practiced by architects and planners. In the UK the project definition process is referred to as client briefing. There the briefing problem is the process of turning the client’s desire for a built product into a clear brief for the project development team to implement (Winch et al. 1998).

Project definition is also seen as the process prior to final investment decision making (Kähkönen 1999). The US-based Construction Industry Institute (CII) (1995) defines project definition as the process of developing sufficient strategic information for facility owners to address risk, and deciding to commit resources to maximize the chances of a successful project. The facility owner typically carries out various specialist studies to establish the project objectives and to test their feasibility. Feasibility tests determine whether or not the project objectives can be met with the available resources, and within the constraints of the operating environment.

Project management is in the strategic position to interface with the customer organization and the project stakeholders to define purpose. Smith (2000) argues that "when the strategic analysis of needs has been rigorously and conscientiously pursued then it should result in a clearer view of the goals of the organization, a better definition of its real needs and the strategic decision should recommend the best means to achieve those goals". Therefore the project definition process serves as a significant stage of project delivery to create consensus between the client organization and the project stakeholders on the purpose of the project in question (M. Gerard Whelton, 2004).

Nishiguchi (2001) and Stacey (1999) describe the characteristics of directive and adaptive management approaches. Fig 1. illustrates management’s role as defined by the levels of complexity in the environment.

Fig. 1. Project Management Styles and Complexity (Adapted from Stacey 1999).

2.3. Sustainable Cities Programme (SCP)

The purpose of the CSP is to:

Define the concept of culture, and how the concept is used in the CEHC (Cultural Ecology of Health and Change) to better understand broad notions of human health and well-being; and

Inform a comprehensive approach to the CEHC program in community assessment research (the EICCARS) that is used to collect and analyze community data, which is used to inform the planning, implementation, and evaluation of CBIs.

The CSP was the first paradigm of the CEHC to emerge because I long felt the need for a comprehensive paradigm for designing and interpreting ethnographic data. It started to evolve when I began to realize that the single theoretical orientation that I took with me to Jamaica in 1974, could not explain the complexity of factors that seemed to influence masculine family and family planning related ideas and behavior (Whitehead, 1976, 1978a, 1978b, 1984a, 1986, 1992).

However, the paradigm did not begin to take operational shape until the professional pressures that I began to feel after completing his Ph.D. and joining the faculty of the School of Public Health at the University of North Carolina in 1976. As a sort of phenomenologically oriented anthropologist in a nine department school with predominantly positivist scientists, I felt like an alien in a strange land.

While the majority of my colleagues could demonstrate their work through measurement and methodological cookbooks, I was often made to feel like a non-scientist (read "non-academic) as I struggled to explain non-standardized concepts such as "culture" and "ethnography".

3. Strategy for Reinforcement of the Sustainable Cities

According to the role of creative places the cultural and social life has been tried to the extent possible to investigate the natural characteristics of urban citizenship and a general work be addressed in the space analysis.

Since most of the major crises must be Search in local culture so through many solutions one of them have noted describes the current state of the cultural environment in order to reveal the changes and the effects of the project.

With orientation towards researching and to the welfare of citizens and also promote our values in the city consider some points:

The required infrastructure for the effective functioning of the city.

Opportunities to develop human resources and to the welfare of citizens.

Developing a detailed plan in order to improve the capabilities and potentials the city and improve its performance.

By considering numerous studies which have been done on the role of human resources in project management, this point consideration that studies on the role of project management in the creation of dynamic spaces and cultural integration is considered less. We try to discuss all collected opinions and studies in connection with dynamic of space and cultural integration.

After hundreds of years of human settlement, each city has formed a distinct identity, distinguishing itself from other cities. In 2014, Bolei Zhou et al. (Zhou et al., 2014) introduced a novel data-driven approach to understand what makes the identity of a city. From the attribute analysis of many geo-tagged images of cities, we found that the identity of a city could be represented and expressed in various urban dimensions, such as green space, architecture, transportation, and activity. Using the attribute representation of images tailored to describe the form and function of cities, they identified images with salient city identity and measured the similarity between cities. Further applications in the urban planning were discussed.

One of the lack of mobility factors in the city is the object disruption. City object disruption occurs when all the social relations reduce to economic relations. Then man's achievements and city looks like tradable object.

City object disruption in Iran that time was high which municipalities were required to self-sufficiency. As a result, it suggest that by creating public places and correct management Prevent potential crises.

A project is an unique process, consisting of a set of activities undertaken to achieve an objective conforming to specific requirements including constraints of time, cost and resources

Attributes of projects,

Unique Purpose,


Require Resources, often from Various Areas,

Should have a Primary Sponsor and/or Customer,

Involve Uncertainty.

A program strategy is the means or broad approach by which a program will achieve its goals. Useful strategies capitalize on program strengths or opportunities, or reduce the influence of program weaknesses or threats.

Due to the extensive and complex aspects of life in modern cities, Variety of activities, growing population of citizens and extent of urban, Management in various sectors to better manage Urban Affairs and The lives of citizens is essential and indispensable.

Today's different aspects of large cities parallel to each other and together, affect on the quality of citizens’ life.

So, participation and cooperation between all influential forces, Lead them in the right direction, Conformity decisions and policies on the facts available, Strategies to eliminate existing deficiencies and improve the optimal quality are the urban project management requirements, which are the necessary and unavoidable. The structure of the city with all aspects result from various urban projects that form. Therefore, Project management is a part of urban management Which Quality implementation affect on urban management and consequently the whole structure of the city And results in all aspects of city life is shown.

For this reason, we Present methods and strategies for the strengthening of the urban management using project management to improve living conditions and to protect more of our urban fabric.

Since the future of our society will be urban, cities instead of being useless places for economic, social and ecological environment investments; must be the centers of economic and social development with the national framework of the rules.

For this purpose there are several ways to scan and discussed; finally, to sum up we propose strategies for this project explains.

One of the strategies in the plan is create dynamic spaces for management, correct administration of human set and integration cultural in the various segments of society.

For this end we investigate the number of citizen-oriented natural urban features which include:

In normal citizen-oriented urban development, people participate in the design process. Citizen-oriented designer trying to Import in the design elements that not seen in the plan but People have been found. For example are not specify transit directions in the park but when the people use the paths that are normally selected, Formality Will be Appropriate. (This feature is called the natural movement)

Normal citizen-oriented, focuses On the production of flexible spaces, Considering the need for all groups, Creating an environment for all, Equal access to opportunities, Imagination and happiness, Generate opportunities for building personal space, Participation design, Increased level of knowledge, The sensitivity of the citizens' urban problems and the quality of the physical environment.

Since today's urban alienation boost in humans and tend to grow up loneliness among the various classes of society. City needs to establish reasonable relations between the natural and physical environment, social and cultural status.

Suggested steps:

Forecast future

Forecast cultural environment In the case of Suggested activities

Forecast cultural environment Without Suggested action.

All the above steps for the ways to avoid, eliminate or reduce any impact to be identified and compensated.

Therefore, cities instead of being useless places for economic, social and ecological environment investments; must be the centers of economic and social development.

To achieve this purpose for the welfare of citizens and the promotion of values in urban space we consider some issues:

Build needed infrastructure for efficient performance of city.

Create opportunities for the development of human resources and to improve Status of the citizens.

Being activities that affect the lives, security and well-being of citizens.

Predetermined accurate planning to support productive and functionary institutions

An accurate and strategic plan.

In this way, the city can improve economic capabilities and skills, also citizens can obtain a reliable place in the global economy; so performance in the international economy will improve.

4. Conclusion

In this study we tried to consider all aspects of the subject, to provide the relationship between urban management, project management, human and material resources to organize activities related to the planning, direction and control of human set.

Analysis of the space in different directions, General functions such as light location, spirit of space, etc was taken, and tried to use the project management And urban management to reduce instability and infrastructure imbalance in the natural, social, economic and physical.

Since The result of Participation And the presence of people is dynamics space; Elements and design details also play a great role in the association and Participation, there is a detailed plan to achieve predetermined objectives such as Attract participation of people, Interaction of citizens, Cities become centers for economic and social development according to the needs of different types of essential terms of looks.

The most important point in the implementation of the goals is considering the infrastructure in the field of urban management.

Therefore correct application of project management and urban management together with using experience of efficient professionals in this area, we tried create dynamic spaces and cultural integration in the city, among the various classes of our society.

In this paper, we first reviewed some important concepts that all citizen should be know, then we proposed some strategy for reinforcement of the sustainable cities, that is cities management.


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