International Journal of Philosophy
Volume 3, Issue 2, April 2015, Pages: 12-23

The Scientific Evidence of the Buddhist Teaching’s Separation Body and Mind When Humans and Animals Die

Jargal Dorj

ONCH-USA, Co., Chicago

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To cite this article:

Jargal Dorj. The Scientific Evidence of the Buddhist Teaching’s Separation Body and Mind When Humans and Animals Die. International Journal of Philosophy. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2015, pp. 12-23. doi: 10.11648/j.ijp.20150302.11


Abstract: This article proves that the postulate "the body and mind of humans and animals are seperated, when they die" has a theoretical proof, empirical testament and has its own unique interpretation.The Buddhist philosophy assumes that there are not-eternal and eternal universe and they have their own objects and phenomena. Actually, there is also a neutral universe and phenomena. We show, and make sure that there is also a neutral phenomena and universe, the hybrid mind and time that belongs to neutral universe. We take the Buddhist teachings in order to reduce suffering and improve rebirth and, and three levels of Enlightenment. Finally, due to the completion evidence of the Law of Karma as a whole, it has given the conclusion associated with the Law of Karma.

Keywords: Body, Spirit, Soul, Mind, Karma, Buddha, Nirvana, Samadhi


"If there is any religion that would cope with modern scientific needs, it would be Buddhism"

Albert Einstein

1. Introduction

In [1,2] we proved the Law of Karma when two conditions are met, such as, firstly, that the objects and phenomena of non-eternal universe exist in three forms: body, spirit and imperfect cluster elements, and secondly, the body and mind are separated when people and animals die, and according to his karma of humans and animals to be reborn in one of the 6 species of the universe, and they can be reincarnated as God or Hell.

In [3] we verified the 1st condition of the theorem – objects and phenomena of the non-eternal universe exist in three forms which are the body, spirit and imperfect cluster of elements, and they are transferred from one birth to another under the control of cause and effect, and they are subordinated by the Law of Motion of Animated Matter. Here, we will verify the 2nd condition of the theorem- body and mind are separated when humans and animals die. Through this, we can verify the veracity of the existence of the Law of Karma as a whole.

It does not make sense when we hear the Buddhist teachings about the separation of the mind and body of humans and animals after their death, why is it like that? We may not be able to believe in it assuming this could be a religious superstition. In fact, it is verified in terms of theory and has evidence in terms of practice and has its own interpretation. Let us see the theoritical proof at first.

2. Theoritical Proof

Theorem: When humans and animal die, their body and mind are separated, and their soul follows their body or mind depending on the direction of the motion. God or Hell, the creator, or the soul that carries it shall be the karma.

Proof: In the previous article [3] when we were verifying that the objects and phenomena of the non-eternal universe exist in 3 forms: body, spirit and imperfect cluster of elements, we proved, from a mathematical point of view, that matter with spiritual characteristics will obtain soul when respective causes and conditions come together, then with continuous evolution - under the influence of cause and effect - this can pass through human and animal realms and reach the spiritual place, and this time soul follows the mind, and soul which was reborn as an animal of the Heavens comes back to the realm of matter under control of cause, condition and karma after being manifested into humans and animals. In this case, the soul follows the body and furthermore, the soul manifested in the realm of matter continues to exist in the universe in the form of the wheel of wisdom/or Dharmachakra in a way of awakening and moving when cause and condition get together. Now, we will study this from the physics point of view.

The origination of life means that matter has the characteristic of emptiness or causal qualityto obtain a mind when the conditions and cause arise. If the conditions for matter to obtain a mind are in place, it will happen inevitably because matter has spiritual characteristics. As we discussed about this before [3], it is not repeated here. We know that the physical measures have their own units, and those units get multiplied to grow bigger and obtain their own names. For example, unit of weight is called milligramm and as this grows bigger it gets the names gram, kilogram and ton. Units of length are called millimeter, and as it gets bigger it gets the names centimeter, meter, kilometer. The same goes for animated matter which also has its own unit, and these units get names such as animal and human as it gets bigger.

Let us see how a matter which has obtained a mind grows bigger. The smallest matter with an electric charge and mass is called a particle in physics. Not necessarily all particles obtain mind. Due to conditions and causes, a particle may aquire a mind. Obtaining a mind means that the matter has become animated. This animated being has a body and mind, and the information about karmic imprints of this animated being is stored now in animated particles. This animated particle or body and mind unit is called the soul. As this soul body "gets bigger" it deveopls self protection characteristics and becomes an аnimal, and as the mind "gets bigger" it develops the ability to think and develops into a human. This can be understood to be similar to the process of the body and and mind of a baby being made of its parents` chromosomes, growing bigger and turning into a human. As a result of certain actions made by the parents, a fetus is formed up in womb. When the soul of a deceased human or animal joins this baby that just formed up within the body, this baby now has a body and mind, and it further develops into a newborn baby. As the baby grows he or she develops a sense of self care or self protection. Later the baby develops a logical mind and grows to be a "human". In other words, it can be understood that the the process of development - starting from a fetus in the womb up to becoming a human - is a short-time rehearsal of the stages when the matter develops into an animal or human. As a child`s body grows, so does his/her mind that contains his/her soul. Soul carries the information about actions done previously by the body, mind, and speech with itself. Here, we can see that the human is an unification of soul, body and mind. Soul represents the characteristics of both body and mind.

Body and mind "growth" means that matter obtains a mind or a unit called soul so that it becomes an animal - it is growth. Later the animal develops intelligence and becomes a human - it is the next growth. These animals and humans have particles with soul, body and mind units. When an animal or human dies due to old age, their youngsters do not follow the dying one, instead, they follow the living ones. Likewise, when one of the body, seen as mother, or mind, seen as father, passes away due to aging, their fruit or soul follows the surviving mind or body. This characteristic in the Buddhist teachings is known as inheritable characteristic of karma or non-perishable qualities.

If a particle that was in a calm state obtains a mind or soul due to cause and condition effects, and presents motion, then the relation between its energy, mass and impulse is determined using the following formula [ 4,10,11 ].

(1)

Here: Е – whole energy, P Impulse, m mass, с – speed of light.

This is, as per matter, a formula of whole energy. The first member of addition is potential energy, and the second one is kinetic energy.

We know that animals and humans keep moving. However, animals and humans do not always move and they stay in a motionless and calm state at least temporarily, too. For example, animals and human stay motionless when they sleep or rest. However, as a soul energy is not equal to zero, they must be moving. All living beings have something that stays in motion even when they are sleeping- that is the heart. Therefore, there is no other place for the soul to stay in except for the heart. It confirms that the Buddhist teaching saying that the soul is located in heart is rationale.

Let us imagine that an animal or a human died. In this case, we will face the question: Is your soul transfered to matter place following the calm body? Or does it survive? We understand that the death of animals or humans is a process where once moving animals and human bodies and hearts have stopped and get absorbed back into the earth. We face the question where would the soul go in this case?

We understood that the animals and humans are the unification of body and mind which is connected through body and mind [1,2]. Actually, animals and humans are the unification of the three: body, mind, and soul, and as soul was seen as part of the mind that was not highlighted specifically. But now, we face the question – where does this soul go when an animal or human dies? Therefore, addressing this question is inevitable.

We understand death is the process of a human or animal`s heart stopping and their body becoming motionless, and in terms of physics, death means the body and heart impulse equals zero and becomes motionless, and energy is transferred into a mass and calm state. Although the heart and body impulse of animals and humans equals to zero when they die, and their body become motionless, but the whole energy of their soul is determined by formula (1) its impulse it is not equal to zero, therefore, there is still a motion. If the soul’s impulse equals to zero and dies following the body when animals or humans die (materialists assume so), then it is not possible for an аnimated particle to reach the spiritual place with its motion. It would contradict our proof that matter and phenomena of this non-eternal world exists in 3 forms: body, mind and an imperfect cluster of elements, and all living beings are under the control of the law of motion of animated matter [3].

Then there is the question: where does the soul exist? Firstly, as the soul is an energy determined by the formula (1) according to the law of conservation and transformation of energy, it is not destroyed. Secondly, the soul does not exist in the non-eternal universe independently. The reason being that I, if soul was able to exist independently in the non-eternal universe, it would be an another outstanding object namely soul composed of imperfect cluster of elements because of having a body and mind like animals and humans. However, there is no such object named soul which was created like an imperfect cluster of elements. Thirdly, the mind is in the state of constant motion. We will show this later. Because of these three reasons, when an animal or human with a body and mind dies, the soul and mind which are in motion have to leave all together the no longer moving body. But the soul follows the mind. If the soul does not follow the mind, it would not be able to reach the spiritual place, like Buddha. So, when people and animals originating from matter dies, his body and mind need to be separated, and the soul must follow the mind.

When an animal or human dies, their soul - following the mind - carries with itself information about the actions done by the animal or human in their lifetime, and we have proven that depending on the negativity or positivity of this information this soul reincarnates as one of the 6 species of animals of 3 realms of high, medium and low levels, even the soul can reach the place of Buddha if it follows the mind, or the place of Samadhi if it follows the body [1,2,3]. It can be understood in comparison with the common lifestyle picture of Mongolians after "Democratic revolution": when one of the parents dies in a family, the surviving parent of his/her child would sell their property or livestock they raised. If they had better life, they would go to urban places in order to get his/her child educated at school, or the other average parent would marry another person and take care of his/her child without struggling. A helpless parent would become addicted to alcohol, and his/her child would live in "a manhole" on the street in order to survive.

When a Saintly or Enlightened person dies and his body and mind separate from one another with his quality, his mind of = {, 3, 4} form reincarnates in the spiritual place and we call it Buddha or God. The mind with soul of Buddha contains the element  or has quality of emptiness [1,2] and the soul has a mass because its energy determined by formula ( 1 ). Therefore, the soul of Buddha exists in the place of gravity from a physics point of view and in Samsara from the Buddhist teachings point of view. However, the Buddha`s soul mass shall be very small and its impulse shall be high. The reason is that the soul while travelling to the spiritual place has its mass reduced and its impulse increased allowing the soul to reach the Heaven. Because the soul of Buddha has mass and has quality of emptiness it can reincarnate as an animal of Heaven due to cause and effect when its mass increases. Further, it is possible to reincarnate as a human passing through beings of animal Asura Heaven [3].

Thus, the Buddhist teaching saying - although a human can manifest in Buddha, as long as it is still in the samsara it can reincarnate back in the human realm – is rationale. It is assumed that 1000 Gods would come to our universe, out of which only 4 have came and the Maitreya Buddha of Good Era will come in the future. Samsara is a Sanskrit word meaning a realm where life turns like the wheel of Dharma. This is called khorvoo in Tibetan and samsara khorvoo in Mongolian.

If mass of the soul of God which reached in the spiritual place decreases under control of cause and effect and becomes (m→0) then its whole energy will be Е= РС in line with formula (1), and the particle will be a photon in terms of the value of physics. A phycics concept that has no body mass, no electric charge, and travels with the speed of light is called a photon or light. Maybe a mind with soul which originated from matter, manifests as light after passing through animal and human births and is called Upper Heaven. Because the Buddhist teachings say there are Heaven with forms and formless Heaven in the spiritual place, and maybe the mind with soul is called the Heaven with forms. In the spiritual place, also the mind which has no soul and presents properties of matter with shape  = {, 3, 4} maybe is called the Formless Heaven or Spirit.

Thus, it is understood that the matter and phenomena of the non-eternal universe that are shaped  = {, 3, 4} having the quality of emptiness, and the soul energy which is determined by the formula Е= РС are called the Heaven with forms. The above mentioned assumptions show that the mind is in a constant state of motion.

On the other hand, Planck and Einstein established that energy of photons is proportional to its frequency, and discovered that it is determined by the formula  [5]. Here: -frequency, - Planck`s constant. From the equivalent equation of energy light pc=h we have  . Here:  which is the wavelength.

If the wavelength is more than  (→∞) then the impulse gets closer to zero (p=0) and the wave or energy (E→0) will fade away. The process when the impulse of the soul of the Heaven with forms equals to zero, it is called reaching Nirvana. In other words, the process when a soul originated from matter becoming Buddha in the spirit place after passing through animal and human births, further its fading off or soul turning off light is called reaching Nirvana. The reason being that physics believe that turned off natural light cannot turn on again which overlaps with the Buddhist teaching that a soul that reached Nirvana does not re-incarnate. As Nirvana does not take birth to influence cause and conditions, it has a non-empty quality or non-causal quality, and as mass and pulse are equal to zero, this is no longer under the control of the law of energy.

From the above, it is seen that if soul did not follow the mind it would be impossible to reach the spiritual place and manifest as Buddha, Heaven or further Nirvana.

Buddhism suggests that a human can be liberated from ignorance by recognizing the emptiness of "I", can be enlightened by realizing the emptiness through developing his mind, and further can manifest Nirvana by developing a vast view through realizing the emptiness of the universe, or can manifest Buddhahood through bodhichitta, the compassionate mind. The enlightenment seeker`s wish to manifest Nirvana or Buddhahood should depend on his level of devotion or motivaion. In other words, it depends on whether the enlightenment seeking individual follows Hinayana tradition or Mahayana tradition of Buddhism. Would it be better to become Nirvana at the end of this life getting enlightened by taking a chance of this rare opportunity of being born as a human? Or would it be better to become a Buddhahood to liberate other sentient beings from suffereing from birth to birth by showing your path to enlightenment? When you ask yourself like this, I am sure you may have a stronger desire to follow the Mahayana tradition.

A human can get enlightened and become Buddhahood while on the earth and manifest Nirvana further. For example, in his lifetime Buddha Gautama realized Buddhahood and manifested Nirvana when he died. It means Buddha`s soul was turned down in terms of physics meaning and was manifested as Nirvana in terms of the meaning of Buddhist teaching. Just before his passing away, Buddha told his monks that he would manifest a form of Nirvana, and it was noted that a big light was beamed from his body for a long time by the time he was passing away. His priests "understood" that manifested Nirvana meant to become light. Later, when the priests found enlightenment, they understood that the true cause of Nirvana attenuation light of the soul, and a great light. When he died, the very principle is such that the light becomes more transparent candles just before its decay. Although the Buddha Nirvana manifested in his teachings on the release of animals and people who are suffering, it served us eternal wisdom.

Thus, we showed that a matter with spiritual characteristics aquires soul and mind, and further manifests animal and human, and when they die, their body and mind are separated from each other, and from here, the soul with good karma has a potential to become Buddha and Nirvana following its mind after passing through animal and human birth realms.

Now we will show that the body and mind is separated when dying animal of Heaven and Asura, as well as some of the soul can go the material place by transferring to animals and humans with matter of origin, and the soul with bad karma can go to Hell or the Devil, and the soul with good karma transmits to the Samadhi state.

The origin of life is the spirit, the spirit to acquires the body when the state and the reason are coming together because of the spirit of the empty characteristics or nature. As we have discussed this before [3], it has not repeated.

A spirit with matter characteristics can obtain body and soul if cause and condition comes together. This soul "grows bigger" and manifests as an animal of Heaven or Asura Heaven. In addition, we must remember that some animals of Heaven and Asura Heaven also have a soul that is transmitted from human and animal origin to matter. In accordance with the Law of the Motion, animated matter and the souls of these creatures return to the matter place when passing through the animal and human origin. [3]. Let us look at this in a physical point of view.

When animals and humans with spirit origin die, their body impulse becomes equal to zero (p= 0) and its whole energy (1) will get a form E = mc2. This is a known formula of kinetic energy. The soul with the body becomes motionless following their body, but it is still moving, because the soul’s energy is determined by formula ( 1). In this case, the mind which is in constant motion has to be separated from motionless body, and three is no other way. The mind that does not contain soul travels to the spiritual place, and the soul that followed the body keeps moving by re-incarnating as animals or humans depending on their karma and reaches to the matter place, and the soul acquires spiritual characteristic of matter [3].

When an ordinary animal dies the motionless body with soul presents a form like = {, 1, 2} and contians  element, therefore it means that it has spiritual characteristic or emptiness quality. It can be animated and moves further if right cause and condition come together. However, a soul transmitted to the place of matters has a potential to develop further to become an animal and human like newly born soul, since there are already available animals and humans in the universe. The soul will develop further in a way of finding their next birth among those animals and humans. In other words, re-animated particle becomes animated in a higher level than before for further motion. This is driven out of the concept – objects and phenomenas in this universe are under the control of Law of Degeneration.

If a Saint person of spirit origin dies, his body has a form = {, 1, 2} and whole energy of his soul is determined by the formula (1), but its mass should be a lot, and impulse should be low. The reason is that since the body is no longer in motion, the soul in it should be moving tenuously. This state of body is called Samadhi state, and that is why a corpse of such person lasts long without deterioriation. It is said there are many corpses of such people in caves of Himalaya or Egypt`s pyramids, and in our previous article we mentioned about the example of non-decayed body of Itgel Khembo Lama of Buryat who died many years ago [6].

Thus, it is concluded that when animals and humans of spirit origin die, their body and mind should be separated, and if their soul does not follow the body it would not be able to come to the place of matter.

Thus, the objects and phenomena of this non-eternal universe exist in continuous cycle of initiation, development, death or wheel of teachings in the Sansara. However, it does not repeat the same old way. This process takes place in better level in a spiral pattern. In other words, life spans in the Sansara in spiral pattern in a form of a wheel of teachings.

The science has not only established that humans have a field of subtle radiation called Aura, but also an equipment called adaptometer that measures this Aura has been invented. When a person dies, the aura is separated from the body, but the aura does not necessarily contain the soul. We showed above that when the Saint people die with the spiritual origin, their soul follows the Aura (mind) and this can transit to the spiritual place by transmitting through animal and human, and if the Aura contains a soul with good karma, it is called a Buddha or God. If the aura contains a soul with bad karma, it is called a Devil.

However, when man dies with the spiritual origin, the spirit passes to the spiritual place because it has no soul. But the soul of man moves within the body with information about karma. If the soul was not a Saint, it will find the reincarnation of humans and animals according to their karma. If the soul was a Saint, the body goes to the Samadhi state and can emit a large amount of energy. An author, who felt strong energy from the caves of the Himalayas from people in the state of Samadhi, indicated this fact in his book [6], which is the evidence of this assumption.

When an ignorant person whose soul follows the mind, dies and creates hybrid mind of = {3, 4} and when this hybrid mind re-incarnates as a human, becomes a person with incomplete mind or mental retard; when it re-incarnates to animal, it becomes an animal with mental retard, we called this Hellish animals [1,2]. If this hybrid mind does not re-incarnate among animals and humans, then because of not containing  element, it will have non-empty quality or it will have non-causal quality. Since this hybrid mind does not have quality of emptiness or causal quality it cannot be under control of Law of Karma and Law of Motion of Animated Matter.

Where does this hybrid mind exist? As a soul follows the mind, this hybrid mind could contain soul in it. For this reason, the soul of this hybrid mind is under control of law of whole energy that is determined by the formula (1). Therefore, this mind does not belong to eternal universe. On the other hand, since this hybrid mind does not have quality of emptiness or causal quality, it is also not part of objects, phenomena, and non-eternal universe. In other words, there are also objects and phenomena in universe which do not belong to not-eternal and eternal universe. Therefore, the hybrid mind can be in a neutral universe. The hybrid mind is called the devil and bitch if his soul has a lot of information about the worst karma.

Not only the Buddhism, but also all the other religions agree that body and mind is separated from each other when human and animal die, however they have different views about where the soul would go. Also all religions agree that there are God, hell and devil.

This way we have proven in terms of the physics meaning that when animal and human – one type of imperfect cluster of elements die their body and mind are separated, and their soul follow their mind when transiting from the earth to the heaven, and the soul may follow the body when transiting from heaven to the earth. Also the soul is the creator of either Buddha or hell-devils. The theorem is proven.

The following statements follow from Theorem.

Statement 1. Soul is the moving force that makes life like span in a form of wheel of teachings in sansara.

Statement 2. Body and mind is the place where soul exist in.

In such way we proved that the Buddhist concept on separation of body and mind upon death of human and animals has a theoretical background. Now we will consider some practical life phenomena which verifies the truth of the concept that body and mind are separated when a person dies, and further the mind of that person can transit to another person.

3. Practical Testaments

We find practical testaments in our daily lives which prove that when a person dies his body and mind are separated and his soul transits to another person:

First, when a person dies, his soul is sensed by some people in a form of light and sound.

This kind of sensation is possible to be sensed by others, because the soul has mass covered by aura.

Second, in real life we find little children of age 3- 5 telling strange things which would not come to other people`s mind. We see this because the child is remembering and talking about the experiences and actions he or she did or experienced in his/her previouse life. Lately, people admire at videos uploaded on Facebook showing kids singing, dancing and playing music amazingly. These actions are related to karma. Those kids were used to sing, dance and play music in their previous life, and these imprints in their mindstreams are waken up straight away when they see and listen to such actions and sound in the era of information. In modern language it is named talent. The re-incarnations of highly recognized monks like Dalai Lama and other gurus are identified at age 2 - 3. The assumption that kids tend to remember their previous life better when they are young, has a solid background. Therefore, it would be better to discover kids` talent when they are at young age.

Third, we, Mongolians point out at those who show bad behavior or actions and wonder what kind of soul that person could have. They may say that there was never such a person in our family generations, or when we look at the one who is successful and enjoying good life, we may say that person was of good fortune that was not witnessed among our family history. And many confirm, although we make same hard effort, we are still struggling to make a progress while this person`s work and deeds prosper even when he/she is doing almost nothing. This is in relation with karma.

Four, when their children reach an age of marriage or starting their own families, parents would consider family backgrounds of the girls or boys whom their children are going to be married, which is again related to the concept that soul transits through births among his/her relatives. Because it is common that mind of deceased person may not wander everywhere and instead may take rebirth among his/her relative families. When "Golden box opening" ritual is done upon death of a person, in most cases it is said the person will be born as good person in one of the relative families, and we know actually many such cases happening- children are born exactly in a way told by during the ritual. If there is no one among the families who could receive the deceased person`s soul then the soul will transit to another place to take a rebirth. Therefore, checking of family background of one`s prospective spouse is a way to avoid from karmic suffering of oneself as well as the person with whom he or she is going to live all his/her life.

Five, lately mass media broadcasts about various cases of a soul being found around homes and work places. There is nothing to be surprised, there is a possibility that a hybrid mind can be found like this. However, such soul located around homes and livestock of families is a hybrid mind that has not taken re-birth yet and is in the intermediate stage of 49 days after death. Although, a mind in its intermediate stage can be sensed by others in a same way as hybrid minds do, it would not stay there constantly like a hybrid mind and it would transit further taking rebirth.

Six, scientists did many researches and gathered many evidences proving life after death. A scientific discipline that studies this area is called Thanatology. Globally recognized doctor Elizabeth Kubler- Ross said "Studying about the impressions of a people who experienced temporary death and revived back is vital for proving the Buddha`s teaching about existence of life after death".

In his book "Life after Death", 1975 [7], R.Mud, Doctor and Psychologist from USA compiled private comments of 150 people who experienced temporary clinic death and attracted attention of many people. Also, this book contains Brown K.D.Dukas`s conclusion that researches verified that soul of a deseased person can initiate a contact back in whatever cases.

Seven, a human is to realize not only the cause and effect of mind. Humans have been recognizing the link between cause and effect of natural and social development, and been implementing the positive things in their lives and avoiding the negative parts. We see how our environment had changed and has been changing rapidly thanks to this approach. There are cases when young people making amazing scientific discoveries or becoming enlightened. It can be explained in relation to the concept of mind taking rebirth. It can be explained by a scientist who did scientific research work in his current life but could not see the results of his study until his next life and/or a monk who could not get enlightened may get enlightened in his next life.

Buddhist teaching says "not all people necessarily continue their previous life actions in their next life." Those who made discovery, according to Buddhist teachings, might have met their previous life actions due to their good deeds. Buddhist teaching explains that a person who accumulated merit in addition to his good deeds in certain direction can meet his previous life deeds. Therefore, a person who is satisfied with his current deeds need to accummulate merit and make prayers in order to meet the same deed in his next life-then, it can ensure him to meet the same deed in his next birth.

There is a tradition to identify re-incarnation of a highly recognized monk who got enlightened through spiritual development in order to link him with his previous life deed. Likewise, when saint people, whose body and mind have empty quality, scholars with generous and heroic mind, or people who lost their lives selflessly, their reincarnations are discovered in order to bring them back to their previous life deeds. It is considered to be a beneficial action that would help in improving their and all humanity`s birth toward enlightenment.

Eight, those people who are distinquished among others with their body, mind and intelligence are called talented ones. Even those who have quite unique characteristics are called as schizophrenic people. This is not a sign of illness instead it could be an indication of previous karmic imprint.

Nine, there are incidents when decent parents giving birth to a child with physical and mental disorder or behavior problem to make them suffer. In contrary, some parents give birth to very attractive and intelligent children – some find it hard to believe that such children can be born from those parents- and those children make their parents and themselves happy. This could be an indication of transition of soul.

Ten, I met some foreign people and scholars who were very interested in language, culture and history of Mongolians. It seemed like some of them are attracted to Mongolia with their heart. In other words, we meet people who have mongolian mind. Then we feel like that person could have soul decsended from a Mongolian person.

We can expect many other things, as above.

These examples show that the concept of the separation of body, mind, and soul; reincarnation to another body has practical incidents. Buddhist teachings assume that there is the Law of Karma. If someone asks Buddhist person is there any verification of this law, they call it a karmic incident. In fact, these karmic incidents are not a verification of the Law of Karma.

4. Interpretation

Now we will explain the interpretation about the possibility of separation of body and mind when a person dies, and reincarnation of his soul as another human or animal, using computer operation which is an achievement of modern science and technical development.

People remember and talk about someone –"This man" was so knowledgeable and he could recall any part of Ganjuur and Danjuur. Ganjuur and Danjuur is a book of Buddhist teachings respectively, 108 and 208 novels. Everybody knows that there is a "Non-self" thing called computer which can answer questions related to not only single knowledge sector but all other sectors. Why we are calling computer as "Non-Self"? The reason is, although computer has enormous amount of information it does not show any pride "I know all" and it does not possess its mouse, display and memory board as "these are mine".

Computer consists of two parts such as, hardware and software. Hardware is composed of physical parts such as, memory board, display, keyboard and mouse. Software is a package of programmes that can run the operations which could be executed by the computer, and is invisible. If one of these two parts missing then no body would call is a computer. In other words, as long as the program is not linked to the hardware it would be useless even though it is so skillful in calculation, writing, painting and answering any questions intelligently; likewise a very good hardware that can calculate, write and draw quickly-could be useless if it is not connected to the software.

In brief, the hardware of the computer can be identified as a body of human, and software as a mind.

We are just trying to understand this by using such comparison, otherwise, computer is not exactly same as human. The reason is that a human can think, regardless of the fact that he knows he can think, and on the other hand, he possesses his body as his own body. Computer has none of these senses. Although a saint person does not have a quality of possessing his body and mind, he knows that he can think and knows his body is his. Therefore, computer can not be compared with a saint person, and we can only take it as a model.

A human writes his own program using computer hardware and software. For example, a program that has been created by programmer can win over world chess champion. But it does not mean that a computer is able to think and win world champion. It only means that a human created a program that can run chess play. However, we heard that scientists create softwares which could think a bit. Anyway, people write programs for your computer for different purposes and keep a copy of the program on CD-ROM or other storage device in case your computer breaks, even the remodeled software is stored on hard drive of the computer.

Then, time passes and one day the computer breaks down and is no longer able to operate. This process is similar to the death of a person. In this case, the person can run the CD-ROM with a copy of the software on another computer in order to use the software. If it works, it is good, but if it does not work then he would run the CD-ROM on a different computer to check it it is still usable. If it succeeds, then he would continue using his software. If it does not work then he has no option and has to discard the CD-ROM. We can understand that this is similar to an occassion when DVD does not operate on a DVD player due to its operation system.

Let us see a human case. A baby, made up by his parents` chromosomes, being conceived is similar to this computer. Forming up of a human body means hardware is created. Then, since this is human chromosome it contains its own primary software. It is evidenced by the following process- at the initial stage the baby does have body and it has just a head, then later it evolves to a body, and a soul transits on this body. When heart starts beating, the body will be ready to accept a soul. We learned from above that a soul exists in constant motion. A process of soul transition into a baby made up from parents` chromosomes is described in a book [8] about intermediate stage of birth.

All the actions done by body and mind is recorded in a person`s soul since his birth and thoughout his growth. Then when it comes to time of aging and death, as per an ordinary person- his mind of a size of a small eye  is separated from his body, which we knew in above mentioned article [1, 2]. This small eye-sized part is same as the computer CD-ROM. Then this disc is run on a computer called "a human being". If the computer named "human being" could run this disc, then it is a good sign, and it means the soul takes a human birth. If it does not run successfully, then this disc is gets tried on a computer named "an animal". If the computer succeeds to run this disc, then it is a good sign, and it means that the soul takes an animal birth. If the computer called "animal" does not run this disc then there is no other way than to except discarding.

The disc is thrown away when an unrecognized disc is on any computer. In human cases, hybrid mind is not discarded as garbage. Instead, because of its non-empty quality hybrid mind can not find the reincarnation, but it exists in the universe. If the hybrid mind contains lot of bad karma then it becomes a devil or bitch.

Some good programmers could write a software that can be automatically sent to another possible parts of computer network in case the computer breaks down. Such software is sent or stored automatically in the computer`s designated network, without use of any disc in case the computer breaks down. This can be understood in comparison with that case – when a saint person dies, his mind becomes a pure mind or empty quality does not present any eye-sized form, and this mind takes rebirth in God place or reincarnate as an animals of Heaven.

We see that the computer is changing rapidly, as the "body" and "mind". For the computer when the "body" and "mind" is changed from one "generation " to another "generation", the "hard drive" with software is transferred from one to the other.
As there are changes in human life from birth to rebirth, the soul with karma passed from one to another.

The above provided background suggests that the Buddhist teaching about separation of body and mind when animals or humans die has theoritical proof, practical testaments and has its own interpretation. Therefore, there is no longer a need to doubt about the veracity of the concept about separation of body and mind when humans or animals die, and about the reincarnation of separated mind through births.

5. The Neutral Universe and Its Phenomena

Objects and phenomena of the non-eternal universe exist in 3 forms such as body, spirit and imperfect cluster of elements having quality of emptiness. Matters have spiritual characteristic, and mind has material characteristic while imperfect cluster of elements (body- mind) has both material and spiritual qualities. Matter is marked = { ,1, 2 }, spirit is = { , 3, 4 } and these two sets have quality of emptiness or causal quality, because they contain an empty element . That means the body and spirit have causal qualities and it can acquire a soul when cause and condition come together that produce imperfect cluster of elements and are under control of Law of Karma and Law of Motion of Animated Matter [2, 3]. We showed earlier that body is under control of kinetic energy law, spirit is under potential energy law, imperfect cluster of elements- under whole energy law and its whole energy is determined by the formula (1). In addition, we showed, that there is a phenomena, and it is under the control one of energy law.

Thus, we are able to provide definitions about matters and phenomena of the non-eternal universe on the basis of the verification of the above theorem.

Definition: The smallest particles of the universe-the phenomenon which has material and spiritual quality and stores information about karma performed in animals and people during their lives, is under the control of one of the laws of energy, and it is called soul.

Definition: A mind that is controlled by the Law of Whole Energy and has soul containing information about good karma is called Buddha.

Definition: A phenomena of the universe - that is under control of the Law of Potential Energy and which has soul containing information about good karma is called Heaven with Form.

Definition: A phenomena of the universe - that is under control of Law of Light Energy and which has material characteristic is called Formless Heaven or Spirit

Definition: A spirit with soul is called Mind.

Definition: The place where Heaven exists with form and formless Heaven and Buddha is called spiritual place.

Definition: An object of the universe that is under control of Law of Kinetic Energy and which has spiritual characteristics is called Matter.

Definition: A body-mind that is under control of Law of Whole Energy, and which has soul is called imperfect cluster of elements.

Definition: A body that is under control of Law of Whole Energy and which has soul containing information about good karma is called Samadhi.

Definition: A Soul acquiring non-empty quality and being liberated from control of any energy laws is called Nirvana.

When a soul with good karma attains Nirvana then it becomes part of phenomena of the eternal universe. This way, Buddhism believes that Mind of Buddha is of eternal quality.

Some buddhists assume that an objects and phenomena of non-eternal universe become part of phenomena of eternal universe only when they abandon their causal quality or acquire non-empty quality, and they believe that there are 2 universes-eternal and non-eternal. Actually, there are 3 universes: eternal, non-eternal and neutral. Let us see this.

When an ignorant person whose soul followed its mind dies, a hybrid mind = {3, 4} was produced while his body and mind were separated by their qualities [1,2].

This hybrid mind is different from an intermediated state (mind) birth. The Gelug-pa tradition of Buddhism or Tibetan Buddhism assumes that soul locates its reincarnation within 49 days after death. A soul searching for its rebirth during 49 days is called intermediate state birth. As an intermediate state birth has soul it can be sensed by sound or any other ways. As the intermediate state birth mind has soul, it possesses material quality, or its mass is not equal to zero in physics term, it is possible for the soul to be sensed by living people. Therefore, there is no need to be afraid of such soul. A person in its intermediate state birth does not even realize that he is dead. In order to know whether he is dead or not, one can check if there is any shadow of himself on sunny day, or if there is any footprint left when he steps on the sand. If one realizes that he is dead, then there is no need to be embarrassed, instead better take refuge in 3 jewels (Buddha, Dharma,Sangha) and make request for finding good rebirth. Buddhism assumes that if this person is afraid he may lose everything [8]. Because there is a possibility for the soul to locate next rebirth while in the intermediate state birth, it is advised that relatives of the deceased person do lots of merit actions such as pujas, recitation, prayers, making charity offering to animals and people within the 49 days wishing for the deceased person to find a good rebirth, and as a person in intermediate state birth is fed by smell it is needed to release smoke from food burning.

There are different names of hybrid mind, depending on where the hybrid mind exists.

For example, if the person was attached to mountains and rocks when he was alive, then it could be possible that his soul will reside in mountains when he dies, and it is called a lord of mountain, if he was attached to water when he was alive then his soul could reside in water when he dies and it is called a lord of water. If the soul was attached to his properties, home and livestock it can stay with them and it is called a demon. If the person was indulged in dellusion and harmful actions his soul can be attached to dellusions and harmful actions, and it is called a devil or bitch, and may follow and help harmful people rejoicing their bad actions. Male one is called a devil and female one is called a bitch. But it is possible that a mind of a person who died in sudden accident, who could not have chance to transfer his mind into death properly, can become a hybrid mind too, although such mind can be seen to other people, it is not harmful and is called a demon. Although such hybrid mind is not harmful to others, it can be difficult either for the person who died or his family, therefore people pray and wish that they would die in natural death.

Lately, the mass media has been broadcasting various occassions of homes and workplaces being haunted by souls. For example, in USA when Halloween gets closer, the TV channel Lifetime broadcasts films related to soul, and in the morning on weekends the Travel channel shows programmes such as "Haunted House", "Haunted Town" and "Haunted City" which are associated with surprise of souls. There is nothing to wander about it as hybrid mind can stay these ways. But there is a soul which is hanging around homes and livestock is a hybrid mind that could not locate its next rebirth within 49 days after death. Although an intermediate state mind after death, like a hybrid mind, can be sensed to other living people, it does not stay there permanently like a hybrid mind does and it goes further when it locates its next rebirth.

When an enlightened or saint people’s soul transits to the spiritual place after their die, it is called Buddhas in Buddhism and God in Christianism. Enlightened saint people and Shamans help others by communicating with Buddhas and Heaven, but some so called "shaman people" communicate with low spirits like devils and bitches. Therefore, Buddhism advises us to contact shamans carefully.

A hybrid mind- that is seen as a type of neutral objects and phenomena- is produced out of mind of human and animal, and has non-empty quality or non-causal quality, and it does not change, transform or reproduce under cause and condition effects. The devil and bich can’t be born because it has non-empty quality or causal quality. It can be understood the same way as the the example of – khainag bull and khainag cow (khainag is a hybrid of the mongolian cow and yak) can not produce a calf.

From above we can see that the hybrid mind does exist, but it does not belong to neither non-eternal nor to eternal universe.

Thus, it is possible to provide definition about the universe and its objects and phenomena.

Definition: The objects and phenomena that have empty quality and are under control of the Law of Energy are named not-eternal objects and phenomena, and the place they exist in is called not-eternal universe or Sansara.

Definition: The objects and phenomena that have non-empty quality and are not controlled by Law of Energy are named eternal objects and phenomena, and the place they exist in is called eternal universe.

Definition: The objects and phenomena that have not-empty quality and are controlled by Law of Energy are named neutral objects and phenomena, and the place they exist in is called neutral place.

Definition: Unification of all the planes including eternal, not-eternal and neutral places is called as whole universe.

These definitions suggest that objects and phenomena belong to 3 universes such as eternal, non-eternal and neutral universes.

Although hybrid mind has not-empty qualities it can be deteriorated and decrease the number of mass and impulse of the soul under influence of time.

Philosophers argue whether objects and phenomena of the universe are originated from matter or spirit, like the scientists who also have different opinions about whether time belongs to eternal universe or not-eternal universe. Some say time should belong to eternal universe and the others see this as a part of not-eternal universe. Even they consider time as a part of imperfect cluster of elements. Actually, time should be part of neutral objects and phenomena. Let us show this.

If time was to be part of not-eternal objects and phenomena, then it would change under influence of cause and effect because of having quality of emptiness, and we would be able to extend or shorten time on the basis of knowing its cause. But it is impossible. If the time was a part of eternal objects and phenomena, it would not present any changes because it has non-empty quality like space and a soul manifested into Nirvana. But time is longer or shorter depending on location or coordinates.

If time belongs to eternal universe, then all animals and humans living in the universe would have same length of living period regardless of their location in the universe. It is not like this. Buddhist teaching says that there are 4 continents around the Mount Sumeru: Purvavideha (Surpassing the Body), Jambudvipa (Rose-Apple), Aparagodaniya (Enjoyer of Cattle) and Uttarakuru (Unpleasand sound). These continents have human settlements and they have various length of ages. Its scientific background is explained by the theory of relativity by A. Einstein.

Therefore, time belongs to neutral objects and phenomena. Time like a hybrid mind that is seen as a type of neutral objects and phenomena, has not-empty quality or non-causal quality and it does not change, transform or reproduce under cause and condition effects. But time is valid in not-eternal and eternal universe like a hybrid mind.

Hybrid mind is controlled by the law of time and energy because time and hybrid mind belong to neutral objects and phenomena. Тherefore, soul mass of a hybrid mind can become equal to zero because of deterioriation under influence of time. It's the same as field stone falling into pieces with time. In this case its soul is controlled only by law of potential energy, and it will transit to the spiritual place. If soul’s impulse of this hybrid mind becomes zero, then the hybrid mind will go out from Sansara. Although hybrid mind does not have empty quality or causal quality and it does not reproduce and does not reincarnate in another place, it can "die" under influence of time. Buddhism assumes that there is a Heaven with long life. Тherefore, hybrid mind may exist in a place of Heaven with long life.

A devil or bitch is a kind of hybrid mind that either follows animal or human because it is 'born out" from separation of body and mind of human and animal. It is the same as the khainag following either yak or cow. As a soul of devil and bitch carries lots of bad karmic information, it is filled with negativities and it is called a Lower Heaven. The Buddhism believes that the holy Sukhabata place found by Amitabha Buddha exists opposite to the lower Heaven filled with negativities, and this place filled with negative phenomena may be the Lower Heaven. The Lower Heaven is like the Satana’s place in Christian religion. The impulse of the phenomena of Lower Heaven could be zero by influence of time. By this time devils and bitches in the Lower Heaven will be destroyed. Therefore, there is a possibility that devils and bitches do not exist in the neutral universe.

From the above explanation, it is seen that the number of devils and bitches can decrease under influence of time. On the other hand, devils and bitches are born out of stupid people, therefore if mind of a stupid or an ignorant person is developed at least to the level of an ordinary person, then we know that from evidence of Karma law that the mind of an ordinary person can find its next rebirth in the human or animal resulting the number of devils or bitches to decrease. Stupid person is not the one who has been re-incarnated immediately from animal realm or human evaluated from animal, but is the one who have wrong views. Therefore, we know there are such stupid people with wrong views among the educated people or even among those having higher positions in the government. It is possible that these people reborn in hell or in the realm of devils and bitches.

We have proven that matters with spiritual characteristics were revealed in the universe at first [3]. It is concerned to the main philosophical issue and is not that important for soul development. Knowledge, education and upbringing are more vital for human development rather than the question whether father was born first or mother was born first. Likewise, consciousness, information, and ethics are more important for soul development, and the question "whether objects and phenomena of the universe were originated from matter or mind" is not that vital for soul development. Thus, Buddhism does not pay much attention to the issue of origination of objects and phenomena of the universe.

Instead, there are two most important issues in human life: nurturing body and nurturing soul of a person. A person with an aim to nurture his sole body is called Ordinary Human or Lay Person and, a person aimed to nurture his soul is called Sangha or Monk. Lay people do actions in order to feed their bodies while Sanghas do actions in order to feed their soul.

An effort to feed one`s body is aimed for the current lifetime, while an effort to feed one`s soul is aimed for future life. The Lay people trying hard to make their current lifetime happy can suffer or be born in hell due to having no knowledge about the importance of feeding one`s soul. The Sanghas who are trying to ensure happiness of their future life may renounce their current life, but it is not harmful and even they may get enlightened. Sanghas, with no doubt, can be born as humans as long as they keep their vows although they may not be able to manifest Buddha or Nirvana. This is seen from the verification of the Law of Karma. However, it does not mean that Lay Person cannot be born as a human. Rebirths may upgrade or downgrade not just because of the names such as, Sangha or Lay Person. Instead, it depends on their karma, and taking human rebirth is such a rare destiny to achieve as said by some Buddhists according to the verification of law of karma – it is like placing rice on needle top.

Although human life is full of suffering, it is not that bad if one tries to be wise, and direct one`s mind properly. Further, humans can attain enlightenment by improving one`s birth over birth cycles due to their intelligence. Sangha`s lifestyle requires abandoning bad actions that lowers rebirth chances. Therefore, they have a better chances of upgrading their rebirth. Since Lay People do not know much about bad actions and ways to change negativities resulting bad actions, they have more risks of having lowered chances of rebirth. Therefore, it is seem to be more beneficial to choose Sangha`s way of life.

It is seen that there is a lack of possibility to bring all Lay People into Sangha`s way of life in given current condition. If Lay People who are living for the well-being of their current lifetime, are provided with mind development education and lifestyle habit on step by step basis, and practice it starting from their young age, then it would be vital for not only their personal development, but also for social development, and can help them to upgrade their rebirths.

The above presented discussions suggest that one can learn about Law of Karma and Law of Motion of Animated Matter and develop his mind in line with Buddhist teachings. Even if he may not be able to attain Buddha or Nirvana within his current lifetime, but that person still has a chance to upgrade his rebirth by taking advantage of currently given rare precious human birth, or at least avoid suffering in lower realms filled with negativities for many years. Oh my dear God! If we transit into lower realms that are filled with all negativities and sufferings, then we will have to suffer there for millions of years! Therefore, we, humans with intelligence should try to abstain from sins and bad actions in our life, and pray to our Buddha and protectors requesting for better rebirth at the time of our birth.

6. Buddhist Teaching to Reduce Suffering, Improve the Rebirth nd Three Levels of Enlightenment

In order to follow Buddhist teaching, a person should help animals and humans, or at least try not to harm them if one is not able to help them, and a person adhering to the following principles will not be reborn in hell or place of long-life devils, and can reduce suffering and upgrade their rebirth from birth to birth [ 9,12]:

First, Remember the kindness of parents, merits accumulated from your life, and opportunity of being born as a human being thanks to God`s kindness,

Two, As this human life is not permanent and death is definite, try to spend this fragile and short human life as meaningful as possible,

Three, In order to ensure such meaningful life, except for working for living, you should study Buddha teachings and keep good morality and ethics,

Four, In order to ensure morality, one should get rid of 6 poisonous afflictions and avoid ten black sins.

Five, If someone is involved in sinful actions, then try to make a promise not to repeat same sinful actions, and avoid the sins by implementing those promises,

Six, Purify one`s sin and negative karma accumulated during this lifetime and previous life through practicing 5 powers such as regret, confession, antidote, prayer, and meditation.

Seven, Try not to let negative state of mind arise, or to awaken the negative imprints in one`s mind by doing bad actions as there is a probability that one could have done various bad actions since beginning of time.

If we understand and follow the above mentioned principles, we can definitely reduce our suffering in this lifetime and improve our birth in the future. A person who fulfilles the abovementioned principles can definitely take human rebirth and is called person following small scope path or Originally Enlightened person.

The person, who is following small scope path is not necessarily to be a Sangha. As per Sanghas who is following the path to Nirvana, one has to study the Buddha`s teaching on Four Noble Truths and Eight Path of Enlightenment in addition to the above principles. Also, follow the below conditions:

First, Understand "I", empty and non-empty qualities of "I" to be liberated from obscurations to liberation, in other words to be freed from ignorance,

Second, Realize emptiness of "I" thanks to perfection of mind through meditation.

Third, It is possible to attain Nirvana if one liberates oneself from obscurations of knowledge by taking and keeping vows strictly, understanding the emptiness of objects and phenomena of the universe, and further it by actualizing peace of mind through meditation, realizing emptiness through wisdom. Those who are meeting these conditions are called a people following medium scope path or more Enlightened person.

One can attain to be freed from all negativities and attain Buddhahood with perfect qualities through generating bodhichitta-mind of wishing to liberate all beings, developing one`s mind, perfecting 6 paramitas, the essence of Bodhisatva way of life and acculumulating great merit. This is called perfectly Enlightened one.

The one who developed his mind will get a name Saint or Enlightened, and when his soul transits into the spiritual place it is named God or Buddha, when their soul’s mass becomes equal to zero, it gets a name Heaven. When Heaven`s impulse becomes equal to zero it gets a name Nirvana. In other words, a human has a physical body with good karma called Saint or Enlightened, a spiritual body with good karma called God or Buddha and an eternal body named Nirvana. In brief, soul has a possibility to take a physical body named Saint or Enlightened person and spiritual body named God or Buddha and Heaven, or to manifest Nirvana which does not have a soul and energy.

7. Conclusion

We proved that body and mind are separated when animals and humans die; and their souls, depending on their good karma, can reincarnate as heaven animal, humans, or give birth to great good beings such as Buddhas, Heaven and Samadhi. They can even give birth to nirvana- as a phenomena of eternal universe. Depending on their bad karma the souls can be reborn in three lower realms, or in the lowest realm which is filled with all negativities such as devils and bitches, and suffer there for millions of years.

Thus, through three editions of the journal, we have completed the evidence of the Law of Karma with its conditions [2, 3].

In the first article [2] we proved that the souls of the dead creatures from 6 species of animal take rebirth in one of the 6 species of animal, even spiritual phenomenon is born depending on their karma when the following two conditions:

1. Objects and phenomena of the non-eternal universe has 3 forms: body, spirit and imperfect cluster of elements;

2. The body and mind are separated when an animal and human die;

In the second article [3] we verified the 1st condition of the theorem - objects and phenomena of non-eternal universe exists in three forms, which are the body, the spirit and imperfect cluster elements, and are transferred from one form to another by quality reason or their karma, and subject to the Law of Motion Animation Matter.

Here, we verified the 2nd condition of the theorem- body and mind are separated when humans and animals die. Through this, we have provided the veracity of the existence of the Law of Karma as a whole. As those two conditions are verified, when we look back, there is no need to demand these 2 conditions be satisfied to formulate the Law of the Karma.

The Law of Karma can be formulated as below.

Тheorem. (Law of Karma) The objects and phenomena of the non-eternal universe exist in 3 forms such as body, spirit and imperfect cluster of elements. Matter with spiritual characteristics aquired mind and soul under the influence of cause and condition coming together. The soul evolves both animal and human, when it "grows larger." The soul of animals and humans contain an information of karmic action of body, speech and mind; and when these animals and humans die, their body and mind are separated, and their soul takes re-birth in one of the 6 animal types of realms. Thus, the soul continues to exist in the Samsara in the form of the wheel of wisdom, or it is controlled by the law of motion of animated matters. If humans develop good mind and do good actions they can improve their next rebirth in upper three realm beings and can manifest as Buddha or Nirvana. On the contrary, the soul can take rebirth in lower three realm beings, hell, hybrid mind, or even can take rebirth as a devil and bitch in neutral universe depending on their negative mind and sinful actions.

Thus, we have proved and formulated the law of origination, development and degradation of objects and phenomena of the universe.

Although the Buddha found the natural law of origin, development and the degradation of life thanks to enlightment about 2,500 years ago, people have studied it as a religious teaching during this period due to the lack of scientific evidence, but now we have proved the scientific basis of this law, so it is our duty to extend this knowledge to the public. Learning about the law of life is not only useful for personal development, but also vital for social development.

Acknowledgements

The auther would like to express their sincery thanks to the editors and anonymous referees for their valuable comments and useful suggestions in improving the article.


References

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  3. Jargal. D., Scientific evidence for the Buddhist teachings about the existence of elements of the universe in three forms: The body, spirit and imperfect cluster of elements. The law of motion on animated matter. Global Journal of Human-Social Sciences:Volume 14- A, Issue 9 Version 1.0 , PP. 17-26. https://globaljournals.org/GJHSS_Volume14/E-Journal_GJHSS_%28A%29_Vol_14_Issue_9.pdf
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  7. R. Moody, Life after life.Mockingbird Books.,1975 , p. 184.
  8. Tibetan book of the dead. (Russion language). Moscow. Спв. 1999. p. 197.
  9. Jargal D., Luminous stars indicating the direction of attaining enlightenment.Mongolian language). Улаанбаатар, 2010, 310.p
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