International Journal of Pharmacy and Chemistry
Volume 2, Issue 2, November 2016, Pages: 20-23

Insecticidal Activity of Essential oil of Parquetina nigrescens (Afzel) Bullock

Adesola Adebajo Osunsami1, Sunkanmi Emmanuel Sotubo1, Oladipupo Adejumobi Lawal2, Isiaka Ajani Ogunwande2, *, Olanrewaju Ishola Eresanya2

1Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria

2Natural Products Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria

Email address:

(I. A. Ogunwande)

*Corresponding author

To cite this article:

Adesola Adebajo Osunsami, Sunkanmi Emmanuel Sotubo, Oladipupo Adejumobi Lawal, Isiaka Ajani Ogunwande, Olanrewaju Ishola Eresanya. Insecticidal Activity of Essential oil of Parquetina nigrescens (Afzel) Bullock. International Journal of Pharmacy and Chemistry. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2016, pp. 20-23. doi: 10.11648/j.ijpc.20160202.13

Received: August 22, 2016; Accepted: September 23, 2016; Published: October 28, 2016

Abstract: The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaf of Parquetina nigrescens (Afzel) Bullock (Asclepiadaceae) was studied for the insecticidal activity using a conventional procedure. Different concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/mL) of P. nigrescens essential oil prepared separately and diluted in DMSO were tested on the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. The essential oil displayed 100% mortality (fumigant toxicity) against S. zeamais adults at tested concentration of 150 mg/mL with lethal concentrations (LC50) of 46.14 mg/mL air. This is the first report on the insecticidal activity of essential oil of P. nigrescens and may be explore as a potential natural herbal plant for the control of insect pest.

Keywords: Asclepiadaceae, Essential Oil, Insecticidal Activity, Parquetina nigrescens, Sitophilus zeamais

1. Introduction

In continuation of our studies on the biological activities essential oils from Nigeria flora [1], we report herein the essential oil constituents and insecticidal activity of Parquetina nigrescens (Afzel) Bullock (Asclepiadaceae). It is a perennial with twinning stem and woody base shortly tapering 10-15 cm long, 6-8 cm broad with a smooth long stem on the leaves. It is usually woody at the base and measures between 7-8 m in length. In Oyo State, Nigeria, the leaves have been reputed for treatment of helminthiasis (intestinal worm) and as repellant against insect pests, while the roots are used for the management of rheumatism [2]. Previous report indicated that P. nigrescens possess antioxidant properties that can protect against free radical induced ulcer [3,4]. Extracts of the plant were reported to have exhibited antidiabetic [5,6] and haematinic [5] effects. In addition, the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic [7] activities as well as antisickling [8], antioxidant [9,10], increases erythrocyte indices/ serum electrolytes [11], antimicrobial [12,13], antityphoid [14] and antinociceptive [15] potentials of extracts of P. nigrescens have been documented.

Parquetina nigrescens has been found to contained cardenoides, glycosides and alkaloids. The phytochemical compounds of P. nigrescens included cymarin, strophanthidin, y-strophanthidin glycoside β-sitosterol-β-D-glucoside, α- and β-amyrins [16]. Some compounds such as g-strophanthin and noradrenaline isolated previously from P. nigrescens have shown cardiotonic effect [17]. The only literature report on the essential oil of isolated previously from P. nigrescens identified citral (35.0% neral and 53.7% geranial) as dominant compounds [18]. The plant is a source of crude proteins [19]. However, there is no report on the biological activity of the essential oil of P. nigrescens in literature.

The aim of the present research was to isolate essential oil from P. nigrescens and investigate the insecticidal activity of the plant used as a natural method of protection against insect pest in Nigeria.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Plant Collection

Fresh leaves of P. nigrescens were obtained from Obafemi Awolowo way, Konigba Junction, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria, in May 2016. The plant was identified by Mr. Odewo of the Herbarium, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN), Ibadan, Nigeria. A voucher specimen, FHI 110568, was deposited at the herbarium for future references.

2.2. Hydrodistillation of the Oil

Briefly, 300 g of the pulverized sample were carefully introduced into a 5 L flask and distilled water was added until it covers the sample completely. Hydrodistillation was carried out in an all glass Clevenger-type distillation unit for 4 h according to the British Pharmacopoeia specifications [20]. The volatile oil distilled over water was collected separately in the receiver arm of the apparatus into a clean and previously weighed sample bottles. The oil was kept under refrigeration until the moment of analyses.

2.3. Determination of Insecticidal Activity

The insecticidal activity was evaluated as described previously [21] using the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais). Different concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/mL) of P. nigrescens essential oil prepared separately and diluted in DMSO were tested on S. zeamais. The appropriate concentrations were applied to filter paper (Whatman number 1, cut into 7 cm diameter) and immediately introduced into Petri dish and sealed. For the control group, the insects were placed in the Petri dish under the same conditions but without the essential oil. Each concentration and control was replicated three times. Insect mortality was determined by observing the recovery of immobilized insects in 12 h intervals up to 72 h. When no movements were observed, insects were considered dead.

2.4. Statistical Analysis

The mean and standard deviation of three experiments were determined. Statistical analysis of the differences between mean values obtained for experimental groups were calculated using Microsoft excel program, 2003. Data were subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). P values ≤ 0.05 were regarded as significant and P values ≤ 0.01 as very significant. Mortality percentages were calculated by the correction formula for natural mortality in the untreated control [1]. The Lethal concentrations (LC50) values for the insecticidal activity were calculated using probit analysis program, version 1.5.

3. Results and Discussion

The percentage yield of the colourless oil was 0.08% (v/w), calculated on a dry weight basis. Figure 1 (Percentage mortality) and Table 1 (lethal concentrations) displayed the fumigant insecticidal effects of essential oil of P. nigrescens against the adults of S. zeamais. The results showed the essential oil to be concentration dependent with some inhibitory action on adults of S. zeamais after 72 h. At the tested concentrations of 200 and 250 mg/mL and after 24 h, the oil of P. nigrescens displayed toxicity towards S. zeamais with mortality rate > 80%. At a concentration of 100 mg/mL, the essential oil of P. nigrescens showed appreciable toxicicity against S. zeamais with mortality rate of 80% after 72 h. However, after 48 h and 72 h and at concentration of 150 mg/mL, P. nigrescens oil exhibited toxic to S. zeamais with mortality rate of 80% and 100% respectively. In addition, similar mortality rate of 100% were achieved at both 48 h and 72 h with the concentrations of essential oil maintained at 200 and 250 mg/mL, when compared with the controls (Fig 1).

From Tabel 1, it could be seen that the essential oil of P. nigrescens after 24 h at all tested concentrations displayed weak lethal concentrations (LC50) of 145.15 mg/mL air towards S. zeamais. Also, the fumigant toxicity of the essential improved significantly after 48 h with a total LC50 value of 51.87 mg/mL air. Finally, the essential oil showed potential fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults with 100% mortality at concentration (150 mg/mL). The lethal concentrations LC50, was calculated to be 46.14 mg/mL air. A comparison of the result with standard insecticidal compounds Allethrin (LC50 7.40 mg/mL air) and Permethrin (LC50 11.10 mg/mL air) revealed that the essential oil of P. nigrescens to have exhibited reasonable toxicity against S. zeamais adults. Although, literature information is devoid of insecticidal potential of P. nigrescens essential oil, however, insecticidal effects of some essential oils from other plants against the adults of S. zeamais and other insect pests have been reported [1,21,22].

Therefore, this study showed that P. nigrescens essential oil with LC50 < 50.00 mg/mL air to have a notable insecticidal action on S. zeamais adults and may be explore as a potential natural herbal plant.

Figure 1. Percentage mortality of S. zeamais adults at different concentrations of P. nigrescens essential oil over 72 h.

It is well known that the biological activity of an essential oil may depend on the effect of the major constituents or synergy between the major constituents and some minor compounds [1,21]. The observed insecticidal activity of essential oil of P. nigrescens may be attributed to the compounds present therein. Previously citral (neral and geranial) were identified as the main components of the essential oil of this plant [18]. Essential oil with high contents of citral [23,24], geranial and neral [25] have displayed potential insecticidal activity.

Table 1. Insecticidal activity of P. nigrescens essential oil against S. zeamaisa

  LC50 (95 Cl)b
24c 48 72
P. nigrescens 145.15 51.87 46.14
(89.30 – 207.20) (0.00 – 92.33) (0.00- 75.37)
Allethrind - - 7.4
(2.01 – 14.65)
Permethrind - - 11.10
(6.03 – 23.19)

a (n= 3, X ± SEM; bLC50 - Lethal concentrations with 50% mortality;

c Time h; dControl

4. Conclusion

The present study provides information on the insecticidal activity of essential oil P. nigrescens. The result revealed that P. nigrescen oil possessed moderate insecticidal activity relative to the controls and may be use for the control of the insect pest.


  1. Lawal OA, Sotubo SE, Osunsami AA, Eresanya OI and Ogunwande IA. (2016) Volatile constituents and insecticidal activity of essential oil of Margaritaria discoidea (Baill.) G. L. Webster.Journal of Scientific Research and Reports (In Press).
  2. Adeyemi SO. (1993) Ethnobotanical study of the antirheumatic plants in parts of Oyo, Africa, 2nd edition. Spectrum Books Publisher, Ibadan, Nigeria, pp. 134-136.
  3. AderibigbeOR, OdetolaAA, OluwoleFS, FarombiEO, Onabanjo OO and JibokuOA. (2011)Antioxidant properties of methanol extract of Parquetina nigrescens in ulcerated rats.International Journal of Tropical Medicine, 6, 25-29.
  4. Kayode AAA, Kayode OT and Odetola AA. (2009). Anti-ulcerogenic activity of two extracts of Parquetina nigrescens and their effects on mucosal antioxidants defence system on ethanol-induced ulcer in Rats. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants, 3, 1, 102-108.
  5. Awobajo FO and Olatunji-Bello II. (2010) Hypoglycemic activities of aqueous and methanol leaf extract of Hybanthus Enneaspermus and Paquetina nigrescens on normal and alloxan induced diabetic female Sprague Dawley rats. Journal of Phytothology, 2, 2,1-9.
  6. SabaAB, OyagbemiAAand AzeezOI. (2010)Antidiabetic and haematinic effects of Parquetina nigrescens on alloxan induced type-1 diabetes and normocytic normochromic anaemia in Wistar rats.African Health Science, 10, 3, 276-282.
  7. OwoyeleBV, Abdulrazaq BN, Idris AO, Lukuman AO, Ayodele OS. (2009)Studies on the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of Parquetina nigrescens leaf extract.Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 122, 1, 86-90.
  8. Imaga NOA, Gbenle GO, Okochi VI, Adenekan SO, Edeoghon SO, Kehinde MO, Bamiro SB, Ajiboye Aand Obinna A. (2010)Antisickling and toxicological profiles of leaf and stem of Parquetina nigrescens L. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 4, 8, 639-643.
  9. Fadeyemi JA, Akinleye SA, Olubisi OSandAdemola AO. (2016)Antioxidant potential of the methanol extract of Parquetina nigrescens mediates protection against intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion injury in rats.Journal of Dietary Supplements, 13, 4, 430-432.
  10. Ayoola AOO, Akinloye OO, Oguntibeju JMO and Odetola AA. (2011) Antioxidant activities of Parquetina nigrescens. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10, 24, 4920-4925.
  11. Agbor GA and Odetola AA. (2005) Effect of Parquetina nigrescens on erythrocyte indices and serum electrolytes of rats following acute blood loss. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 8, 4, 527-531.
  12. Oluwafemi F and Debiri F. (2008) Antimicrobial effect of Phyllanthus amarus and Parquetina nigrescens on Salmonella typhi. African Journal of Biomedical Research, 11, 2, 215-219.
  13. Odetola AA, Oluwole FS, Adeniyi BA, Olatiregun AM, Ikupolowo OR, Labode O, Busari L and Shorinola JA. (2006) Antimicrobial and gastrointestinal protective proeprties of Parquetina nigrescens (Afzel.) Bullocl. Journal of Biological Sciences, 6, 4, 701-705.
  14. Akinyemi OI and Dada EO. (2014) In vivo antityphoid activities and proximate analysis of ethanolic leaf extracts of Parquetina nigrescens. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences 9, 5, 115-123.
  15. Okunrobo LO, John OU and Precious EE. (2014) Antinociceptive effect of methanol extracts of Parquentina nigrescens (Afzel) Bullock (Periplocaceae) fruit bark. Journal of Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 1, 1, 16-19.
  16. Marks WH,FongHHS, Tin-WaM, FarnsworthNR. (1975)Cytotoxic principles of Parquetina nigrescens (Afzel.) Bullock (Asclepiadaceae).Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 64, 10, 1674-1676.
  17. Datté JY and Ziegler A. (2001) Pharmacological investigation on nigrescigenin-a cardenolide from Parquetina nigrescens (Afzel.) Bullock: comparative studies on cardiotonic effects of Parquetina nigrescens, g-strophanthin and noradrenaline in guinea-pig isolated atria. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 53, 6, 859-866.
  18. Owolabi MS, Lawal OA, Hauser RM, Setzer WN. (2014) The volatile constituents of Parquetina nigrescens from southwestern Nigeria. Natural Product Communications, 9, 6, 857-858.
  19. Gbadamosi IT, Moody JO and Yekini AO. (2012) Nutritional composition of ten ethnobotanicals used for the treatment of anaemia in Southwest Nigeria. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 2, 2, 140-150.
  20. British Pharmacopoeia, (1980) HM Stationary Office, Vol II, London.
  21. Lawal OA, Opoku AR and Ogunwande IA. (2015) Phytoconstituents and insecticidal activity of different leaf solvent extracts of Chromolaena odorata against Sitophilus zeamais. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 5, 3, 237-247.
  22. Ilboudo Z, DabiréL CB, Nébié RCH. (2010) Biological activity and persistence of four essential oils towards the main pest of stored cowpeas, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Journal of Stored Product Research, 46, 2, 124-128.
  23. Khani A, Basavand F and Rakhshani E. (2012) Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of lemon verbena essential oil. Journal of Crop Protection, 1, 4, 313-320.
  24. Pinto ZT, Sánchez FF, dos Santos AR, Amara ACF, Ferreira JLP, Escalona-Arranz JC and de Carvalho Queiro MM. (2015) Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly.Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology Jaboticabal, 24, 1, 36-44.
  25. Nonviho G, Wotto VD, Noudogbessi JP, Avlessi F, Akogbeto M and Sohounhloue DCK. (2011) Insecticidal activity of essential oil s extracted from three species of Poaceae on Anopheles gambiae spp. major vector of malaria.Scientific Study & Research, 11, 4, 411-420.

Article Tools
Follow on us
Science Publishing Group
NEW YORK, NY 10018
Tel: (001)347-688-8931