Sustainable Proposal for Utilization of a University's Park and the Contribution of Different Types’ of GPS for an Architecture Landscape Plan
Stergiadou Anastasia1, Kolkos Georgios2
1Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Faculty of Forestry and Natural Environment, Institute of Forest Engineering and Topography, Thessaloniki, Greece
2Forester-Enviromentalist AUTH, Ariadnis, Thessaloniki, Greece
To cite this article:
Stergiadou Anastasia, Kolkos Georgios. Sustainable Proposal for Utilization of a University's Park and the Contribution of Different Types’ of Gps for an Architecture Landscape Plan. International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy. Special Issue: Advances in Sustainability Assessment. Vol. 4, No. 6-1, 2015, pp. 1-8. doi: 10.11648/j.ijrse.2015060401.11
Received: July 17, 2015; Accepted: February 23, 2016; Published: April 18, 2016
Abstract: Urbanization has brought city dwellers under stress; resulting in the renewal and development of open spaces to create urban green areas or remodeling existing ones; gives a breath of renewal in the wider area of an urban area. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the appropriateness’ of using handheld GPS for mapping urban green for developing regeneration proposals. Two different types of GPS and various topographic methods were used for comparing the results of field measurements with the "true value" - in our case was that of the KTIMATOLOGIO AE - because it gives acceptable by the State surveying quotes. The utilization of the park was based on the method of mild and low regeneration cost. The results of this research are given in two stages; the surveying and the planning. The surveying results from comparing measurements between two types of GPS and the Ktimatologio AE are within the industrial error of each instrument. As far as urban park planning and utilization in the campus of AUTH a reconstruction plan is proposed based on low cost in intervention on urban green.
Keywords: Sustainability, Utilization, GPS Types, Methods of Surveying Floss, Architecture Landscape Urban Plan
The decade of 1960s, the development of the system Transit started, ancestor of the current GPS systems (Global Positioning System), by US government’s organizations, including the military and NASA. In the beginning the reasons for the development of the system were for military applications (even today the operational control belongs to the USAF-United States Air Force). However in recent decades, political and geodetic applications have been developed. GPS is a global satellite system providing positioning in global coverage, all-weather and with high accuracy.
The purposes of this paper are: 1) to show how useful GPS surveying systems can be in topographical mapping of urban green 2) whether the differences in positioning are within the limit of topological errors and 3) if GPS systems can be used to plan reconstruction proposals of urban parks.
The creation of green areas and parks within urban spaces is necessary in our time, due to climate change, the greenhouse effect and the crowding of the population in urban centers. The reconstruction and development of these sites is very beneficial, because it gives a sense of renewal and alternation for both aesthetic and environmental reasons. This study aims to reflect the current situation of the park of the Observatory of AUTH and recommend gentle low-cost regeneration measures, because the rotation of planted links in urban green spaces, gives impetus to renewal within the urban centers.
2. Literature Review
The NAVSTAR / G.P.S. (Navigation Satellite Timing and Ranging - Global Positioning System) or simply GPS is a satellite-based global positioning system that uses coordinates of time and speed, anywhere on the Earth's surface or below it, in any time and regardless of the weather conditions. The system was designed in the 1970s, developed in the 1980s and is constantly under the control of the US Department of Defense (Department of Defense) (Fotiou and Pikridas, 2006). The GPS belongs to the GNSS systems (Global Navigation Satellite Systems), such as the similar Russian system GLONASS (GLObal Navigation Satellite Systems) and promising purely political European GALILEO system.
Fixed points for creating topographic charts is a method used since ancient times. The use of geodetic, photogrammetric, satellite and other methods to capture and map an area are necessary to achieve the field measurements. (Papadimitriou and others, 2007, Doukas, 2002) makes reference to the necessity of land registration processes in forest cadastre. As "Urban Green" is mainly characterized the urban tissue space which is planned or is in development process of the city and has been evolved to remain without buildings and host some form of vegetation. The built-up areas have now flooded the surface of large cities, especially of megacities. The urban green is limited in parks or in rows on both sides of major roads, while the suburban green spaces have also declined dramatically with the continuous expansion of the building (mainly arbitrary) (Kassios, 2003). The importance of urban and suburban green is a climate forming factor of the city, which provides constant source of renewal of air, and a filter for large amounts of air pollutants (Dafis, 2001, Karameris 2009). The benefits of urban green range from physical and psychological in social cohesion and ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity (Fuller and Gaston, 2009).
The urban green, in the current times and in the conditions of big cities, should provide possibility of escape from the man densely built up environment in an area with other colors, shapes and sounds, cleaner air, milder noises, in a cool room, shady or simply sunny with blue sky or panoramic views. Stergiadou (2001) said that the development of space is a way of creative expression. It is a social necessity, economic and environmental, leading to the fulfillment of human needs. The combination of cartographic surveying of an urban green area using low-cost GPS and the redevelopment proposals of mild and low cost is required in our times, because in the present time of economic crisis it will also cover the socio-economic needs of the city inhabitants.
3. Research Area
As research area was chosen the Observatory Park on the campus of AUTH. The choice of the area was such because it is not only one of the busiest and popular areas of the University campus but also of the city of Thessaloniki generally. The site occupies an area of 19629, 29 m2. The perimeter of the park of the Observatory, as it was measured by this study, is 513,1m. In the area stands the building of the Observatory, as well as the Jewish monument. There are two internal main streets, as well as two others that lead to the main entrance of the main building of the Observatory (fig. 1).
The vegetation consists of forest species (Pinus nigra, Pinus Radiata, Cupressus Sempervirens etc.) and rangeland vegetation (Hordeum, Dactylis Glomerata, Lolium, Brumus, Poa, etc.). The Park of Observatory represents the 13% of the total green campus of AUTH (Tab.1 & 2 and Fig.2 & 3).
|TOTAL AREA OF AUTH CAMPUS||332388,94m2||100%|
|GREEN AREA OF AUTH CAMPUS||151799,50m2||45,67%|
|PARK NAME||GREEN AREA (m2)|
|FREE SPACES – SQUARE OF CHIMIO||13262,37525|
|TOTAL GREEN AREA||151799,5096|
4. Materials and Methods
Our research consists of two levels and therefore uses different materials and methods for completion of both studies, given in detail below:
4.1. Materials and Methods for Capturing the Park Observatory of AUTH Campus
The measurements were performed with: 1) GPS handheld Garmin eTrex Vista mapping and 2) with GPS for Android EGSA '87. Both two devices are in Class Handheld GPS, low cost, which is the issue in our times. The area was captured with the GPS perimeter initially and then inside with emphasis on key points (specific places-buildings) and internal roads. Also the area was measured using a measuring tape to calculate the length of the perimeter and internal roads.
Measurements took place at midday, with good weather, so we could avoid the error of multi-reflection, and in positions that do not impede the signal reception from the plants or by the existence of buildings in the area. To accept measurements within the factory errors of each instrument we have given each measure the necessary time to allow for the greatest possible number of satellites in each position. Thus higher accuracy was achieved, because of the resolution phase of satellites.
The measurement procedure was surveying each point as: X (East - C), Y (north - N) and Z (altitude - elevation). Also recorded the deviation of each position based on the measurements of each institution and the satellite geometry (Stergiadou et all, 2003).
The "true values" for comparison of differences between GPS handheld and preparing the topographic plan was received by KTIMATOLOGIO AE. All the measurements are in the coordinate system EGSA'87 (Greek Geodetic System 1987).
The purpose of the mapping was the cartographic representation of the terrain and the record of the accuracy of measurements based on Forest Cadastre (urban green) using suitable electro and satellite bodies (GPS). The method of comparison of measurement results with various handheld GPS was based on geodetic methods, particularly in the theory of errors by calculating the mean square error and the average squared error in order to find the deviations of measurements of the "true values" (Doukas K., 2004).
4.2. Materials and Methods for Proposing Redevelopment of Observatory Park
In urban centers there are three types of arrangement of green areas for optimum use of their potential: linear, radial and concentric. By Law no. 2508/1997 three basic types of urban renewal are provided depending on the intensity of urban and intervention: reconstruction, renewal and improvement.
Based on Legislation and also the type of users who visit the Observatory Park, we chose an intervention refreshing combination between linear and radial defining centered design the building of the Observatory. With this combination of landscape architecture we aim to achieve redevelopment of the park and the creation of recreational areas and relaxation for students, teachers and companions of hospitalized in adjoining AHEPAN’s hospital.
The results of this study are divided into two levels: 1) The reliability of handheld GPS measurements to capture urban green areas, and 2) The recreation landscape architectural plan of the Observatory Park.
5.1. Results for Imprinting with Two Types of Low-Cost Handheld GPS
|POINT||Χ||Υ||Accuracy AC (m)||ELΑVATION||Distance from |
previous point (m)
Based on GPS handheld Garmin eTrex Vista mapping was depicted originally forty four (44) points of the perimeter of the park Observatory (Table 3). Table 3 with bright color displays brand GPS-handheld points Garmin e-Trex Vista mapping, which are common with those of surveying with GPS android EGSA'87 (Table 4) and the KTIMATOLOGIO AE (Table 5).
The surveying results of GPS android EGSA'87 are given in details at Table 4 and also for the same points are given the coordinates from the official webpage of KTIMATOLOGIO AE in the Table 5.
Within the Observatory Park in order to geo-referenced we counted another three points given in Table 6.
|POINTS||Χ||Υ||Accurasy (m)||ELEVATION (m)|
|Proposed Park’s Position 0||0411825||4497931||6||37|
We worked the field measurements by the method of the theory of errors, involving comparison between field measurements and the "true value" which led us to the following tables (7, 8, 9), the corresponding diagrams (3, 4, 5) and of course the appropriate conclusions in each case.
Initially we compared each GPS handheld with the "true value" of the KTIMATOLOGIO AE and then all together to find the differences and decide what is the most suitable for low-cost surveys in the urban fabric.
|points||KTIMATOLOGIO Coordinates||GPS Android EGSA '87 Coordinates||Difference U||Average Square Error|
|μτ = ± ((υυ)/(n-1))0,5|
|ΕΘ||ΝΘ||EGPS||NGPS||ΕΘ- EGPS||ΝΘ - NGPS||Ε||Ν|
|Κ1-A1||411830||4498073||411831,67||4498069,6||-1,672||3,404||μτΕ = 0,738||μτΝ = 1,408|
|Points||KTIMATOLOGIO Coordinates||GPS GARMIN-eTrex Vista Mapping Coordinates||Difference U||Average Square Error|
|μτ = ± ((υυ)/(n-1))0,5|
|Κ1-P1||411830||4498073||411829||4498070||1||3||μτΕ = 0,353||μτΝ = -1,118|
The gaps between the field measurements with GPS Android EGSA'87 per location and the corresponding "true values" of KTIMATOLOGIO AE, do not exceed the acceptable error factory 5 meters relative to East, but as to the north we have two points diverge significantly. The first gap was at point: K3 ~ A3; due to canopy cover and the second (K8 ~ A8) due to the phenomenon of multi-reflection, because it is between the buildings of AHEPA’s Hospital and the Faculty of Engineering.
The gaps between the field measurements of GPS Garmin eTrex Vista mapping and the corresponding "true values" from KTIMATOLOGIO AE, mostly do not exceed acceptable factory error of 5 meters to the East as in most respects except one (K7 ~ P37) because it is located between the buildings of AHEPAN’s Hospital and the Polytechnic School and because of the phenomenon of multi-reflection. In the North we have two points diverge significantly. The first gap was at point K3 ~ A22 due to the canopy cover and the second gap was at point K7 ~ P37 due to the phenomenon of multi-reflection; because it is located between the buildings of AHEPA’s Hospital and the Polytechnic School, and also due to the symmetry of satellites.
|EGPS-EGSA'87||EGPS-GARMIN eTrex||X KTHMATOLGIO AE|
In Table 9 which is expressed in Figure 6, we observe price differentials relative to E or X, of the two GPS and with that of the KTIMATOLOGIO. We realize that differences are minimal except point 5.
Observing Table 10, which is expressed by the Figure 7, and where field measurements are captured between the two GPS handheld with that of the KTIMATOLOGIO AE as a northwards (N or Y), we find that deviations are not displayed.
Based on the above diagrams and tables we find that there are no significant deviations from the true value of the KTIMATOLOGIO AE. However, differences were shown in the mean squared error of both GPS handheld with the KTIMATOLOGIO AE, which does not exceed 0.75 with respect to E and 1.5 regarding N. Therefore we can say that both handheld GPS are acceptable to be used for mapping urban green when variations of measurements’ are within the factory errors organs.
5.2. Observatory Park Redevelopment Study
The sustainable proposal was based on a combination of methods related to urban green in order to achieve a recovery of the Park Observatory with minimal interventions and low cost. The general concept was to design an architectural plan based on Greek aromatic plants and painted rocks in order to recreate the landscape and designe a galactic realistic depiction of our planetary system. The construction of that kind of park will give the opportunity to the students of Physics but also to the visitors of the AHEPA’s Hospital to have an educational time with not many lectures. The next architectural plan gives all our sustainable proposals concerning the Observatory Park in AUTH Campus.
The sustainable redevelopment proposal concerns: 1) the construction of a rock garden which is with the solar system and where we put rocks painted in matching colors of the planets and in positions similar to their actual orbit around the sun. In the following images (5 & 6), the formation is given analytically.
The proposed "Four Season Garden" (Fig. 10), located in the Northeast side of the Park, is proposed to import plants to bloom in all four seasons and edible shrubs like lavender, thyme, mint and herbs like lemongrass, evening primrose, jasmine, honeysuckle, etc, so that the rotation of colors, aromas and flowering creates a calm atmosphere for the students, employees teachers of Aristotle University, and also patients and their companions in the adjacent hospital AHEPA. The plan following indicates the details of the proposed garden.
6. Discussion and Conclusions
This research was initiated in two levels, the use of low cost handheld GPS for mapping apark within the urban fabric, and field measurements were evaluated based on the "true value", as given by the KTIMATOLOGIO AE and upon this surveying we proposed a Sustainable Architecture Landscape Study based on a Mild Regenerating and renewing the existing part and creating educational rock- and four seasons garden.
The results of comparisons between fields measurements with two different handheld GPS and true values, were found satisfactory and acceptable, since it was within the organ factory errors. So the use of low cost handheld GPS is suggested for the architectural landscape design in the urban fabric.
The Observatory Park redevelopment proposals is based on the use of shrubs and herbs that can be purchased from the Departments of Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Environment, and therefore the construction cost will be lower and the species proposed are available and have many requirements in water and planting operations (pruning, fertilization, etc.).
At a time when the cost - benefit analysis will be shown that is more relevant than ever we believe that such architectural landscape study is easy to be implemented and the results are going to be shown within a decade. In any case a renewal sustainable proposal of utilization a university park is always an educational statement.
We need to thank for the completion of this paper the Technical Service office of AUTH for providing the original topographic plan, the KTIMATOLOGIO AE for free access to the survey data and as well as all the scientists whose writings were consulted to draw up this scientific and research work.
This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund – ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Thales - Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.