Computer and Control
Dr Irshad Ullah
Education Department, Government of KPK, Islamabad, Pakistan
To cite this article:
Irshad Ullah. Computer and Control. International Journal of Science, Technology and Society. Special Issue: Global Warming Effects, Recovery, Management in the Rapid Changing Phenomena. Vol. 3, No. 1-3, 2015, pp. 4-7. doi: 10.11648/j.ijsts.s.2015030103.12
Abstract: Computer is a device of the new age used by a lot of organization for many purpose. Control is also necessary for an organization. Having no control consistent work is not possible. Same like CU of CPU control all the work in a same way Computer may be used to control the work of any department. In this research data will be collected and analyzed to show the phenomena. The data collection will be analyzed by computerized techniques to show its importance. The produced results will be discussed
Keywords: Control, Source, Tool, Organization, Data
To control just like to organize, plane, staff or direct it is the work of manager of the systems. To control its an important because with the help of this its possible to correct the errors and take the right direction. Because by doing this its possible to minimize the deviation from the standard and to achieve the objective and goal according to the specified manner.
According to the new approach control is to keep thing safe on time while in the earlier time control is used by the time of error detection. In management control may be defined to set standards, measure the performance and to take the action for corrections. In 1916, Henri Fayol give one definition of the control as it to the management:
Control of a responsibility composed to see that each and every thing is according to the plan make or take, according to the commands given, and also according to the principles adopted. The objective is to analyze the errors and to prevent it from repetition (Fayol, H. 1949). EFL breach define control that actually in control the performance is to be checked against the predefine standards in the plane for the purpose to achieve a good production and performance upto maximum
Harold Koontz define control: He says that control is to measure and correct the performance for the surety that the organization aims and the procedure for its achievement are accomplished.
Robert J. Mockler gives a more sophisticated definition of the organizational control :
He says that the organizational control can be defined that a systematic effort by the organization to do the comparison of performance to the given standards, procedure or aims in order to describe that the performance is in line with the given standards and probably in order to take any steps for its correction for the purpose to see that man and other available resources to be used in good and effective way possible to achieve the organization objective( Mockler, R. J. 1970) .
Also control can be define is"that function of the system that adjusts operations as needed to achieve the plan, or to maintain variations from system objectives within allowable limits" The subsystem of any control are very closely agreement with the system software like operating system. The interaction of the control with the operating system depends on the degree to which they work together and on the given objective. Now talking about the stability is that quality of the organization that is to maintain its way of output without effecting wide fluctuations. It is the response pertains with the speed with which a system correct the deviation and come back to approximate expected production(Johnson, R.A. 1976).
Now a political setup can explain the concept of control and the significance of the feedback. Every side or party organize its campaign in which they introduce their candidates. They have to make a close interaction with the people or public. They are explaining their party program and want to convince the people according to that and they are making their best efforts to select their candidate. Now all the plan has been done. The program is deliver to the public. During their process they make their best effort to make the public opinion according to their goal and plan . At the end of this in a feedback when the process is finished now they have to think over that either its will be possible for their candidate to win. Now they are expecting it from the overall program and arrangements made by them during their election process.
Now as it is the end of campaign and they receive the feedback. Depending on the results of the feedback achieved they have to make plan and strategies to maximize the chances of their candidate to win.
Now from all these definitions and discussion it is clear that there is a very close relation between plan and control. Plan make and define the aims and objective of the organization in detail in a well mannered format. Clearly in a plan it is define and explain that what are the objectives of the organization. Now control is mechanism with the help of which efforts has been made to achieve these goals and objectives. In Control if any fault or damage is going to be occur in the organization plan. Steps must be taken for its correction and the directions is to de defined to make the correction of the errors and also to prevent such type of errors from occurig in future. With the help of control the performance of is to be measured against the given goal and objectives. Its may be observed that both plan and control is a process one define the objective and the other measure the performance against the objectives.
Control is a non stop process
Control is the activity of the management
Control is present in each part of the organization
Control is a process in which steps to be taken in forward directions
To control and to plan these are interlinked
Control may be thought as a process to achieve the organization performance.
Control may define that it is a last process
Control is a process to compare the planned and the real performance
2. Man and Machine control
To identify the element of control in a machine system it is easy. Now here it has to be describe with the help of example. Like if it is desire to control the characteristic then it might be some variable just like temperature or speed. And to measure it the device may be a thermometer or speedometer . As here the chances of exactness are present because it is known that characteristic is a variable of the type scientific and the expected normal and standard variation may be described in accurate terms.
In automatic machine classification, information input is used to for the frequent adjustment of the out put. If an error is occurred for example variation from the standard then to make the correction the process is going to start. The automatic system is highly and accurately designed for the purpose to accept the input and produce the desired out put with a very narrow domain of variation. Also it is equipped with the process to make the correction if there is variation from the standard (Eilon, S. 1979).
Now to illustrate the mechanical control:
When the load on steam engine is increase its work become slowly. Now make it on its correct level to overcome the difficulty that the speed of the engine is now slow hence more energy is released to overcome this problem now as a result revolution per minute is increase. When observed it is seemed that this mechanical control is very simple while comparing with the electronic control which is used in daily life experiences. For the purpose to explain the difference between the two systems here an example is going to be taken from the electronic system.
Now consider the complex missile guidance system control mechanism which is going to measure the real path according to a mathematical calculation. This system almost work very intelligently to correct the errors and direct the missile to its correct target.
It is clear from the given example that the mechanical system uses the simple while the electronic system of control uses very sophisticated methods for the goal or plan of the system to achieve.
Now if the machine system of control is compare to the human control systems it is very clear that machine system of control is complex in terms of technology while the control system of the human is complex due to complexity in the elements of control
Because inn human control system it is difficult to determine the relationship between the objective and the characteristic. It is vague in nature. To measure the attributes it is subjective. It is not an easy task to define the standards. Also the input amount required for the process is not countable. Now to explain this it is to be taking an example from the social life where an abnormal behavior may be controlled with the help of some existence law. Now to control the observed violation laws are present and these may be controlled by that may court hearing, in some cases with trail and in some case to stay in the prison and then to free from here (Anthony, R.N. 1970).
Now if the speed limit is to be consider on the freeway for driving is one standard which may be quantifiable but here again if it is to be consider that what is the degree of allowed variation and what is the actual variation its may be the disagreement between the two petrol-man and the variator. Now the complexity of the society and its standard for different fields like economic, education, social and political operation may be difficult for a common man to follow. As he does not know about the standards and the criteria to follow. As a result he is unaware that where he is guilty and violate the law.
Most organized systems have a combination of man and machine control. Some control is to be performed by machine where other is to be performed by the man. Also some standards may be structured and some may be general. Man must act as a controller and the judgment is required
3. Computer and Control
Computer is also a machine having a proper control mechanism. Each and every thing is controlled here with a proper and predefine mechanism. Just like Central processing unit of the computer is composed of control unit which is responsible for generating control signal which is bi directional in nature. All the work of the CPU is controlled by the CU by sending signals. Just like computer have a very proper method for the control same like that computer is also used by the other systems to control. Just like in the aviation systems computer is used to make the proper control. The pilot uses computer for the purpose of control to avoid collision with other aircrafts. Robotic is that field of computer which give a lot of help to the systems in different circumstances to keep tight control.
In everyday life control is an central factor as doing any type of work. In some condition it's very risky for the human to job so computer could be used to survive with the condition. With the help of robots it's possible to work where it's not possible for the human being to do it. Systems may be restricted by by means of computer as it is simple by using it just like in convey systems computer is used for control. Also PC controlled is used by the organization for safety purpose. . Its may be to work in war industry to prevent more destruction in the world by the use of these systems (Ullah, I. 2010).
5. Results and Discussion
How processor control is useful the records was gathered and analyzed from different sources by the method of interviews, observation and questionnaire. Different places were visit to collect the data. Different methods of interviews and questionnaire were used. Help was also taken from the method of observation.
6. Conclusion and Future Work
It is clear that computer systems play a vital role in control of different systems. Here in this research it is discussed to show the role of control through computer systems. As it is observed that in a some situation control of the computer base systems give a very safe mode to the humans. It is studied that control of the computer system is even better to safe human life and reduce the cost of destruction. But in some situation that computer is a machine so may be its fail to work. So in future it's possible to work specially by using artificial intelligence it's possible to make the improvements. Its may be to work in war industry to prevent more destruction in the world by the use of these systems.