Journal of Investment and Management
Volume 4, Issue 6, December 2015, Pages: 377-390

An Analysis of Work Motivation and Teacher Job Satisfaction in Public Secondary Schools in Rarieda Sub-County, Kenya

Fredrick Omondi Ogonda1, Bula Hannah Orwa2, Wambua Philip Peter2, Muli Vika Jedida2

1Master of Business Administration Graduate, School of Business, Kenyatta University, Nairobi City, Kenya

2Human Resource Management, Department of Business Administration, School of Business, Kenyatta University, Nairobi City, Kenya

Email address:

(B. H. Orwa)

To cite this article:

Fredrick Omondi Ogonda, Bula Hannah Orwa, Wambua Philip Peter, Muli Vika Jedida. An Analysis of Work Motivation and Teacher Job Satisfaction in Public Secondary Schools in Rarieda Sub-County, Kenya.Journal of Investment and Management.Vol.4, No. 6, 2015, pp. 377-390. doi: 10.11648/j.jim.20150406.22


Abstract: In the public secondary education sub-sector, issues about job satisfaction are glaring as industrial unrest and labour turnover are almost a daily phenomenon. The fundamental question that one would ask is why does there exist this reality. Could it because teachers in the public secondary schools are not satisfied with their jobs .This study seeks to analyze work motivation and teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county, Kenya. The specific objectives of this study sought to establish how remuneration, recognition, working conditions and training influence teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county. A descriptive research design was employed during the study, with a sample of 205 teachers from a population of 440 being used. Primary data collection was utilized. Quantitative and qualitative data was collected and self-administered questionnaires were preferred, while the validity of the questionnaires was ensured through pre-testing. Quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Subsequently, the analyzed data was presented using frequency tables, percentages, measures of central tendencies and measures of dispersion. From the analysis, the study concluded that motivation factors such as remuneration, working conditions, recognition and training influence teacher job satisfaction. The study makes a number of recommendations: that similar studies be conducted in other regions in order to corroborate the study or establish new findings; A study to find out whether there exist other factors influencing teacher job satisfaction; studies to establish why majority of teachers were satisfied with training yet the same teachers were not satisfied with their jobs.

Keywords: Work Motivation, Job Satisfaction, Recognition, Training, Rarieda Sub-County, Kenya, Teachers, Public Schools


1. Background to the Study

Work motivation is the process that arouses, energizes, directs, and sustains behavior and performance among employees, (Slocum, & Hellriegel, 2009). Work motivation encourages employees internally towards the actions which help them to perform the preferred tasks and employ effectiveness is a way that inspires them to do their work and have commitment towards their jobs. According to Slocum, & Hellriegel, (2009), intrinsic work motivation is the motivation to perform an activity in order to experience the pleasure and satisfaction inherent in the activity. Slocum, & Hellriegel, (2009), espouse that work motivation involves employee compensation, working conditions, training, recognition and appreciation.

According to Byars, & Rue, (2008), compensation refers to all the extrinsic rewards employees receive in exchange for their work. Usually, compensation is composed of the base wage or salary, incentives or bonuses and benefits. According to Muathe, (2008), Compensation is payment to an employee in return for their contribution to the organization, that is, for doing their job. Muathe, (2008) continues that the most common forms of compensation are wages, salaries and tips. In today’s competitive business environment, organizations strive to gain competitive advantage by offering their employees highly competitive rewards. Compensation is not only a tool for gaining competitive advantage but also a strategy for attracting, motivating and retaining top talents within the organization, (Werner, & Dismore (2009).

Employee training is the process of providing employees with the knowledge and skills needed to do a particular task or job, Werner, & Dismore, (2009). They espouse that normally, a new employee’s manager has the primary responsibility for his/her training. The new employee’s training can have a significant influence on the new employee’s productivity and favorable attitude towards his/her job, (Byars, & Rue, 2008). Today, employers have got no other choice but to ensure the training and development of their employees while they remain valued assets in the organization.

Recognition can occur both in verbal, promotion, and in tangible reward. While citing Okumbe, (1998), Njoroge, (2011), refers to promotion as the advancement of a worker to a better job in terms of more skills, responsibilities, status and remuneration. When an employee is promoted to more challenging and more demanding job, they feel trusted and their contributions valued in the organization. Such an employee is more likely to give his/her all to the organization.

Working conditions play a very central role in influencing job satisfaction of any employee. Kyongo, (2006), asserts that employees would feel satisfied in their jobs if they are working in a clear and orderly work place, with adequate tools and equipment, acceptable levels of environmental quality, temperature, humidity and noise. The surrounding in which people work should not be that which pose a threat to the workers lives; when that is the case then the employer should ensure that there are safety measures in place to ensure that the hostile conditions are tamed.

2. Statement of the Problem

Teacher absenteeism, lateness, low productivity, turnover, demonstrations and rampant strikes witnessed in public secondary schools are a serious indication that teachers in public secondary schools are not satisfied with their job. Castillo, & Cano, (2004) on a study at an agricultural college at a large university by using the Herzberg's theory studied job Satisfaction in the Wood Faculty to explore the motivational factors that affect job satisfaction. Their findings showed that the work itself was the most important factor that contributed to job satisfaction, with working conditions being the least important. Carrying out his study in USA, Ambrose et al., (2005) conducted a qualitative study to investigate the influences of motivation on faculty job satisfaction and retention. The study focused on Carnegie Mellon University of Pittsburgh over a period of two years in the USA. Findings suggested work motivation causes of job satisfaction such as salaries, collegiality, mentoring, and the reappointment, promotion, and tenure process of departmental heads.

Brady, (2007) reported that leadership, recognition, working conditions, salary, interpersonal relations and professional achievement and growth affect job satisfaction in the nursing faculty in baccalaureate- and graduate degree nursing programs in the USA, and that they also influence retention in nursing faculty in associate-degree nursing programs as well. Reporting on the effects of teacher absenteeism on quality teaching and learning in Ghana, Al-hassan, (2009), established that Poor remuneration is the leading reason for most teachers to indulge in absenteeism, late coming to school and early departure from school, making up 70% of the respondents. In Kenya, Akali, (2010) concluded that factors that affect teacher job satisfaction included pay, promotion, compulsory transfer, recognition and work conditions. She further found out that among the diploma teacher trainers in Kenya, promotion played a bigger role as far as job satisfaction is concerned.

It is therefore clear that teacher job satisfaction remains a mirage in public secondary schools. It is therefore imperative that more studies be conducted to determine the extent to which the work motivation variables influence teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools. This study therefore sought to investigate the influence of work motivation on teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county.

3. Specific Objectives

i.     To establish the influence of remuneration on teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county.

ii.   To determine the influence of working conditions on teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county.

iii.  To examine the influence of recognition on teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county.

iv. To assess the influence of training on teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county.

4. Research Questions

i. What is the influence of compensation on teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county?

ii. What in the influence of working conditions on teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county?

iii. What is the influence of recognition on teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county?

iv. What is the influence of training on teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county?

5. Scope of the Study

The study focused on finding out the influence of work motivation on teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county, Siaya County in the Lake Region. Subsequently, the study covered Teachers Service Commission(TSC) employed teachers working in Rarieda sub-county.

6. Theoretical Review

Although there are many theories of motivation, three have emerged as most popular: Maslow need hierarchy theory, Herzberg’s two-factor theory, and Vroom’s expectancy theory, (Kreitner 2007). However, this study was anchored on: Maslow’s needs theory, Herzberg’s two factor theory, McClelland’s need theory and Douglas McGregor’s theory X and theory Y.

7. Maslow’s Need Theory

Van Der Merwe, (2008), cites Muchinsky (2006) who defines Maslow’s Need Theory as a "theory of motivation based on a sequential ordering of human needs that individuals seek to fulfill in a serial progression, starting with physiological needs and culminating in the need for self actualization". Van Der Merwe, (2008) refers to Kreitner, (2004) who notes that Maslow (1943) believed that the source of motivation resided in the fulfillment of these needs. He defined these needs as Physiological needs, Safety needs, Love needs, Esteem needs and Self-Actualization needs.

Higher needs emerge as lower needs are fulfilled.

Figure 1. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Source: Kreitner, (2007).

 Maslow’s theory has been heavily criticized by other behavioral scientists. Even the hierarchical arrangement of the five needs has been questioned. According to Van Der Merwe (2008) there exists practical evidence that suggests that a two-level rather than five-level hierarchy should be used. Despite Maslow’s model’s failure to stand up to practical testing, it still teaches that a fulfilled need does not motivate an individual anymore, (Kreitner, 1983). A good leader or effective manager will therefore anticipate their employees’ unique personal need profiles and then provide opportunities to fulfill emerging needs. Once the employee reaches the level of enhanced self-esteem needs a worthwhile job and meaningful recognition could provide effective means and opportunities to motivate better job performance. Job performance refers to the ability and extend to which an employee performs in their job, (Van Der Merwe, 2008).

8. Two-Factor Theory

Herzberg (1968) conducted a series of research surveys where 200 accountants and engineers were asked to describe specific situations where they felt exceptionally bad about their jobs, and later asked the same group of accountants and engineers to describe situations where they felt exceptionally good about their jobs. Van Der Merwe, (2008) notes that Herzberg (1968) developed a theory of employee motivation based on satisfaction which implied that satisfied employees would be more motivated from within to work harder than employees who would be dissatisfied and hence would not be self-motivated.

According to Kreitner, (2007), Herzberg (1968) found that dissatisfaction generally tended to be associated with complaints about the job context or factors in the immediate work environment, while feelings of satisfaction originated from the nature of the task itself, for example the opportunity to experience achievement, receive recognition, work on an interesting job, take responsibility, and experience advancement and growth. These factors were called motivators.

The factors that lead to dissatisfaction are factors, such as company policy and its administration, supervision, working conditions, relations with others, status, and job security and called to be responsible for hygiene (Kreitner, 2007). According to this study, these realizations led Herzberg (1968) to insist that satisfaction is not necessarily the opposite of dissatisfaction. The study posits that an employee can be motivated by job context or factors in the employee’s work environment such as pay, status, or working conditions, to a level of merely not being dissatisfied, but not to a level of true motivation. The theory argues that, money would be, a weak motivational tool since, at best, it could only eliminate dissatisfaction (Van Der Merwe, 2008). The study agrees with Herzberg’s view on motivation that it cannot be achieved by simply eliminating dissatisfaction and that to effectively satisfy and motivate employees, an additional element is required: meaningful, interesting, and challenging work. Herzberg concluded that enriched jobs were the key to self-motivation. Meaning that, the work itself, rather than pay, supervision, or other environmental factors, was the key to satisfaction and hence motivation (Kreitner, 2007)

Herzberg’s theory has been criticized especially for its practicability. Merwe (2008) refers to Beck (2000) who says that Herzberg (1968) repeatedly claimed that external incentives are not motivators, with the important distinction between external rewards and intrinsic motivation. He realizes that this distinction cannot be seen as unimportant, but criticizes Herzberg for the fact that he did not make it clear, resulting in his ideas sometimes seem very unusual. Despite Herzberg’s slightly controversial views, his theory has a clear message for managers in trying to motivate employees, the first step should be to eliminate dissatisfaction by ensuring that pay, working conditions, company policies are reasonable. But pay and those other improvements will not lead to motivation, so the next step would be for managers to enhance motivation by improving factors that cause satisfaction. So managers should ensure that there are opportunities for advancement, achievement, authority, status and recognition. (Kreitner, 2007).

9. McClelland’s Need Theory

McClelland’s (1961) theory was based on the individual’s need for achievement, affiliation and power. The achievement dimension of this need translates into an individual’s desire to complete a task or accomplish a goal more effectively than before, while the need for affiliation speaks of the need for human companionship and social interaction, (Kreitner & Kinicki 2007). Van Der Merwe (2008) refers to Poisat (2006) who while referring to Kreitner (2004) states that the need for power lies in the desire to control resources or influence, coach and manipulate others. That there exists a strong correlation between the levels of achievement need and level of engagement of an employee. The strong correlation between engagement and motivation implies that the need for achievement will also relate strongly to the level of motivation as experienced by an individual.

The need for achievement: As far as Creitner & Kinicki (2007) are concerned, when an individual displays a high need for achievement, they tend to set relatively difficult goals and take relatively risky decisions. The opposite is also true, where a low need for achievement is present in individuals who are inclined to set easily achievable goals with minimum risk.

Van Der Merwe (2008), argues that people with a high need for achievement need to receive immediate, specific feedback on performance. High-need achievers become frustrated with incomplete projects, are constantly pre-occupied with their work and continuously think about it, whether at work or not. Individuals with a high need for achievement prefer to take personal responsibility for the job and are often found to take on more than is required. This gives such persons a sense of accomplishment, hence the deduction that the job itself becomes their source of motivation. Opposed to popular believe, individuals with a high need for achievement often do not succeed at making senior managerial positions since their traits seem to conflict with the requirements of higher-level positions. The study posits that the nature of higher level positions requires the incumbent to delegate more, take either more or less risky decisions, and in addition, feedback is often not immediate, if at all individuals with a high need for affiliation are dependent on others’ reassurance and approval. They are normally genuinely concerned about others’ feelings. The study further asserts that people with a high need for affiliation would more easily conform to their thinking and actions to that of others. People with a high need for affiliation will find professions that include high levels of interpersonal contact and substantial amounts of helping others appealing.

Poisat (2006) believes that the characteristics of high-need achievers are closely resembled by those associated with engaged employees, and it is axiomatic that organizations would prefer to recruit and appoint as many such employees as possible.The need for affiliation is another level of need. Kreitner & Kinicki (2007) report that people with a high need for affiliation will prefer to spend their time nurturing relationships and because of this, might have a problem taking unpopular decisions. However this trait might cause such people to be less effective as managers.The need for power: The need for power reflects an individual’s desire to influence, coach, teach, or encourage others to achieve. The two report that if individuals need for power is positive, they focus on accomplishing group goals and helping employees attain the feeling of competence. However, if individuals need for power is negative, then they become selfish and take credit for all the group achievements. According to McClelland, top managers should have a high need for power together with a low need for affiliation. Achievement, affiliation and power need to be considered during employee selection for better placement.

10. Theory X and Theory Y

McGregor (1957) is perhaps the most well-known scholar to develop Maslow‘s needs hierarchy into a cogent articulation of the basic assumptions of the organizational behavior perspective‖ (Van Der Merwe, 2008). McGregor outlined two theories of how managers view and hence treat employees. Each theory is a managerial assumption regarding employees. McGregor main point seem to be that depending on the accepted assumption, those beliefs tend to be a self-fulfilling prophesy.

Theory X holds that workers are viewed as lazy, self-interested and gullible thus, predicating the assumption that they need to be guided and controlled. Managers who have these assumptions believe that it is their job to structure their subordinates work. These assumptions can lead to mistrust and eventually cause diseconomies of scale. This theory is well aligned with the works of Taylor and Simon (1997) as they focus on organizations as purely rational systems. Theory Y holds that employees are capable, self-controlled, and self-directed. They accept and desire responsibility and are receptive to change and organizational and self-improvement. Managers under the Theory Y assumption believe that good work itself is motivating. Managers are also more likely to develop positive interpersonal relationships with their workers (Van Der Merwe, 2008).

11. Empirical Literature Review

Job satisfaction as a variable deals directly with employees who are essentially the most important assets any organization have, (Slocum & Hellriegel, 2009). It is the employees who keep the organization running and ensure that the organizational objectives and goals are achieved. To this end, workers attitude and feelings towards their job should be of utmost concern to any management. A lot of empirical researches agree that employee job satisfaction is a function of employees’ work motivation element such as compensation, training, working conditions, and training.

12. Compensation

Compensation refers to all the extrinsic rewards employees receive in exchange for their work, (Byars, & Rue, 2008). Usually, compensation is composed of the base wage or salary, incentives or bonuses and benefits. According to Byars, & Rue, (2008), Compensation is payment to an employee in return for their contribution to the organization, that is, for doing their job. He continues that the most common forms of compensation are wages, salaries and tips. In today’s competitive business environment, organizations strive to gain competitive advantage by offering their employees highly competitive rewards. Compensation is not only a tool for gaining competitive advantage but also a strategy for attracting, motivating and retaining top talents within the organization. When employees feel that they are well compensated for the services they offer to the organization, they are likely to work harder, beat deadlines and targets, and work overtime. On the contrary, when employees feel under remunerated, then lateness, absenteeism, strikes, go-slows, may characterize employee behaviour. "The main purpose of a reward system is to motivate the employees to work in a direction that corresponds with the company’s predefined goals. To make the employees work in a desired direction it is important that companies use rewards, which stimulate the desirable behaviour", Muathe, (2008).

The equity theory basically holds that employees have a strong need to maintain a balance between what they perceive as their inputs to their jobs and what they receive from the jobs in the form of rewards. For instance, if an employee believes that he/she is underpaid, they are likely to reduce expended effort by working more slowly, taking off early or being absent. Similarly, if an employee believes that he/she is being overpaid, they are likely to work harder or for longer hours

Empirical researches report inequity in pay, high rate of labor turnover, absenteeism, strikes and go-slows, poor performance among secondary school teachers. These reports beg for questions concerning whether teachers in public secondary schools are well compensated, and to what extent does compensation influence job satisfaction among the teachers.

Njoroge (2011), reporting on factors influencing job satisfaction among primary school teachers in Mombasa municipality, noted that though 53% of the teachers were satisfied with their jobs, 77% of them were not satisfied with their pay. The study further revealed that more than 56% of the respondents agreed that compensation, affect job satisfaction. The study recommends for further studies to be done in order to find out reasons why 53% of the teachers were satisfied with their jobs, yet 77% were not satisfied with the compensation they received. However her study only limited to primary teachers in Mombasa municipality.

Ondieki (2005), reported that remuneration ranked top as a factor influencing job satisfaction among teachers in south Kissi district. The study indicated that 65% of respondents were not happy with the salary they were paid for their services; other factors such as promotion, recognition, and leadership style had relatively less influence on job satisfaction among diploma teacher trainers.

Akali (2010), concluded that factors that affect teachers’ job satisfaction and performance included pay, promotion, compulsory transfer, recognition and work conditions. The further found out that among the diploma teacher trainers in Kenya, promotion played a bigger role as far as job satisfaction is concerned. However from the research, it is not clear whether compensation also influence diploma teacher trainers’ job satisfaction in Kenya.

13. Working Conditions

Working conditions play a very central role in influencing job satisfaction of any employee. Kyongo (2006), asserts that employees would feel satisfied in their jobs if they are working in a clear and orderly work place, with adequate tools and equipment, acceptable levels of environmental quality, temperature, humidity and noise. The surrounding in which people work should not be that which pose a threat to the workers lives; when that is the case then the employer should ensure that there are safety measures in place to ensure that the hostile conditions are tamed. According to Herzberg (1968), if working conditions are not conducive, hardworking employees who can find work elsewhere leave, while mediocre employees would remain and this compromises the success of the organization.

Castillo and Cano (2004) conducted a study at an agricultural college at a university using the Herzberg's theory to explore the factors that influence job satisfaction. The findings showed that the work itself was the most important factor that contributed to job satisfaction, with working conditions being the least important. However, they did report that all of the factors of the Herzberg's theory were moderately related to job satisfaction.

Kyongo (2006), indicates that among the public health employees of local authorities in Kenya, 62% were satisfied with the office facilities and the working space. The study concluded that, promotion and remuneration are the factors that greatly influence job satisfaction among public health employees of the city council of Nairobi. The study however was limited in scope to public health employees of local authorities in Kenya.

A study by Ndungu (2013), reveals that working conditions, compensation, and leadership style influence job satisfaction and organizational performance of Kenya Medical Training College (KMTC) workers in Kenya. The study recommends that management should improve working conditions, salary and that various leadership styles should be applied by the management for positive influence on employee satisfaction and performance. The study though, failed to establish the extent to which working conditions influence job satisfaction.

In the teaching fraternity, issues about working conditions have been raised. The nature of the geographical location of the school; the climatic conditions, the school’s relations with the local community, availability of well-equipped classrooms to facilitate teaching and learning, availability of a well-equipped library, proper housing and sanitary facilities, water and electricity, and security are matters of great concern to the teachers. In the recent years, the media has reported about very deplorable conditions that teachers have to contend with in their line of duty. Njoroge, (2011) cites Prasaad, (2004) who says that the society has many expectations from the teacher, the teacher in overburdened as the teacher is expected to teach six or seven lessons out of eight daily. With the introduction of F.P.E by the NARK regime in the year 2002, teachers’ working conditions have degenerated from bad to worse as teachers have to handle overpopulated classrooms like never before. In some areas, especially the northern parts of the country, teachers have to brave militia attacks, under tree classes, poor housing, poor sanitation, poor transport, and inadequate water.

14. Recognition

Recognition at the work place has to do with appreciating employee’s effort. It is acknowledging of employee’s accomplishment. Recognition can occur both in verbal, promotion, and in tangible reward. While citing Okumbe, (1998), Njoroge, (2011), refers to promotion as the advancement of a worker to a better job in terms of more skills, responsibilities, status and remuneration. When an employee is recognized through promoted to more challenging and more demanding job, they feel trusted and their contributions valued in the organization. Such an employee is more likely to give his/her all to the organization. Kyongo, (2006) cites Herzberg (1968), who explains that individuals at all levels of organization want to be recognized for their achievements on the job. That their success do not have to be monumental before they deserve recognition. It is just natural that peoples’ effort is recognized for them to feel part of the system.

Akali, (2010) found out that factors that affect teachers’ job satisfaction and performance included pay, promotion, compulsory transfer, recognition and work conditions. Her study revealed that among the diploma teacher trainers in Kenya, promotion played a bigger role as far as job satisfaction is concerned. Njoroge (2011), indicated that compensation, recognition, supervision, promotion, work conditions and training affect job satisfaction among primary teachers in Mombasa municipality, the research nevertheless does not indicate how much promotion influences job satisfaction.

15. Training

Training is the process of providing employees with the knowledge and skills needed to do a particular task or job (Werner & Dismore, 2009). Normally, a new employee’s manager has the primary responsibility for his/her training. The new employee’s training can have a significant influence on the new employee’s productivity and attitude towards his/her job, (Byars, & Rue, 2008). Today, employers have got no other choice but to ensure the training and development of their employees while they remain valued assets in the organization. Training is a major facet of talent and knowledge management which is crucial for the future of human resources of any organization. (Muathe, 2008) explains that training is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviors to enhance the performance of employees. Training is activity leading to skilled behavior. `Njoroge, (2011) indicated that compensation, recognition, supervision, promotion, work conditions and training affect job satisfaction. Among primary teachers in Mombasa municipality the research revealed that only 11% of the respondents agreed that training affect job satisfaction.

16. Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction is a topic that attracts wide interest from both the workers who work in the organizations and scholars who study the subject. It is an often studied variable in organizational behaviour research, and also a core variable in both research and theory of organizational phenomena ranging from job design to supervision (Kreitner & Kinicki, 1989).The traditional model of job satisfaction focuses on all the feelings that an individual has about his/her job. However, what makes a job satisfying or dissatisfying might not only depend on the nature of the job, but also on the expectations that individuals have of what their job should provide (Kreitner & Kinicki, 1989). A satisfied employee is inclined to be more industrious, inspired, and dedicated to their work (Slocum, & Hellriegel, 2009).

Job satisfaction has been conceptualized in many ways. In fact job satisfaction is too complex to measure, Njoroge, (2011). Satisfied employees will commit to their jobs, come to work early, work overtime, beat deadlines, and achieve highly work goals, (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2007). On the contrary, dissatisfied employees are characterized with lateness, absenteeism, low morale, and low productivity at work. However, empirical studies seem to agree on work motivation measures that can be taken by the management to ensure employees are satisfied with their jobs. Job satisfaction results from work motivation factors such as compensation, training, recognition and working conditions, (Slocum, & Hellriegel, 2009).

Reporting on factors influencing job satisfaction among public primary school teachers in Mombasa municipality, Njoroge (2011), found out that 13% of the respondents were dissatisfied with their jobs, and that 34% were neutral. Her study revealed that despite 53% of the teachers saying that they were satisfied with their jobs, 77% were not satisfied with the compensation they received. In the study, more than 56% of the respondents agreed that compensation, recognition, supervision, promotion, work conditions and training affect job satisfaction.

Akali (2010), concluded that factors that affect teachers’ motivation and performance included pay, promotion, compulsory transfer, recognition and work conditions. She further found out that among the diploma teacher trainers in Kenya, promotion played a bigger role as far as job satisfaction is concerned. Ondieki (2005), reported that remuneration ranked top as a factor influencing job satisfaction among teachers in south Kissi district. With 65% saying that they were not happy with the salary they were paid for their services.

Among the health workers, the same trends have been reported. For example, Kyongo (2006), indicates that among the public health employees of local authorities in Kenya, 57% were saying they were not satisfied with their salary. However, 62% were satisfied with the office facilities and the working space. The study concluded that, promotion and remuneration are the factors that greatly influence job satisfaction among public health employees of the city council of Nairobi.

A study by Ndungu (2013), reveals that working conditions, compensation, leadership style influence organizational performance of KMTC workers in Kenya. The study recommends that management should improve working conditions, salary and that various leadership styles should be applied by the management for positive influence on employee performance. In the teaching profession therefore, work motivation and job satisfaction issues are raised. Often stakeholders in the education industry are locked up in boardrooms discussing strategies to ensure that teachers remain contented within the service. Of course such meetings especially come during industrial unrest involving strikes that usually completely paralyze or threaten to paralyze the functions of the sector. It is interesting however to note that issues surrounding work motivation and job satisfaction in the education sector continue to elicit controversy whenever the teachers unions and their employers (TSC) seek or attempt to address them.

The education sector contributes immensely to the social and economic development of our country. The former South African head of state, Nelson Mandela noted that education is the single most powerful tool which can be used to change the society. To this end, since 1963 the subsequent post-independent governments in Kenya undertook reforms through the various commissions set up in the education sector aimed at improving quality of education in the country. According to the recommendations by the Ominde Commission (1964), Kenya as a young nation then, would only travel the path of development when the education path the country would walk promoted equality among all the races in the nation.

Since Kenya’s independence, the government has worked to promote quality in terms of the scope and the depth of the content offered at secondary school level, improvement of school teaching and learning facilities such as better and adequate classrooms and laboratories, improved working conditions for teachers such as house allowance, medical allowance and commuter allowance. Besides, public secondary school teachers have been offered maternity leave and education leave. In terms of compensation, there have been improvements as a result of collective bargaining by the two teachers unions: Kenya National Union Of Teachers-KNUT and Kenya Union of Post Primary Education and Technical institutions (KUPPET).

Despite this enormous effort by the government regimes both in the past and present, the public secondary education sub-sector continues to witness unprecedented labor unrest and labor turnover which have threatened to paralyze or sometime completely bring down the public education sector across the nation.

17. Research Gaps

Various studies discussed show that job satisfaction has been studied with relevance to leadership style, supervisor behavior, pay and promotion, job environment, training and other work related factors. In almost all the studies the employees were not satisfied with their job for one reason or the other. Dominating studies in job satisfaction are available medicine, college trainers, and teaching profession. However, the studies are not consistent in their findings. Furthermore, none has been done with a focus on Rarieda sub-county public secondary schools.

For instance, Reporting on factors influencing job satisfaction among public primary school teachers in Mombasa municipality, Njoroge(2011), found out that 13% of the respondents were dissatisfied with their jobs, and that 34% were neutral. Her study revealed that despite 53% of the teachers saying that they were satisfied with their jobs, 77% were not satisfied with the compensation they received. In the study, more than 56% of the respondents agreed that compensation, recognition, supervision, promotion, work conditions and training affect job satisfaction. She recommends for further studies to be done in order to find out reasons why 53% of the teachers were satisfied with their jobs, yet 77% were not satisfied with the compensation they received. However her study only limited to primary teachers in Mombasa municipality.

Akali (2010), concluded that factors that affect teachers’ motivation and performance included pay, promotion, compulsory transfer, recognition and work conditions. The study also found that among the diploma teacher trainers in Kenya, promotion played a bigger role as far as job satisfaction is concerned. However from her research, it is not clear whether supervision and compensation also influence diploma teacher trainers’ job satisfaction in Kenya.

Ondieki (2005), reported that remuneration ranked top as a factor influencing job satisfaction among teachers in south Kisii district. The results of the study indicated that 65% of respondents were not happy with the salary they were paid for their services. Further the findings indicated other factors such as promotion, recognition, and leadership style had relatively less influence on job satisfaction among diploma teacher trainers.

Among the health workers, conflicting trends have been reported. For example, Kyongo, (2006) indicates that among the public health employees of local authorities in Kenya, 57% were saying they were not satisfied with their salary. However, 62% were satisfied with the office facilities and the working space. His study concluded that, promotion and remuneration are the factors that greatly influence job satisfaction among public health employees of the city council of Nairobi.

A study by Ndungu (2013), revealed that working conditions, compensation, and leadership style influence satisfaction and organizational performance of KMTC workers in Kenya. The study recommended that management should improve working conditions, salary and that various leadership styles should be applied by the management for positive influence on employee satisfaction and performance. It is this glaring contextual gap that this study on Analysis of motivation and job satisfaction of teachers at Rarieda sub-county, Kenya sought to help fill.

18. Conceptual Framework

Job satisfaction is a function of work motivation factors such as compensation, recognition, working conditions, and training. The presence of these motivational factors leads to job satisfaction among employees. Teachers Service Commission (TSC) and the Board of Management (BOM) therefore need to carefully design the school policies and align them with secondary school teacher needs since the absence of these factors can cause job dissatisfaction. According to Riley (2012), these factors called motivator factors are based on an individual's need for personal growth. Riley espouses that when they exist, motivator factors actively create job satisfaction. If they are effective, then they can motivate an individual to achieve above-average performance and effort. Figure 2 below shows the conceptual framework.

Figure 2. Conceptual Framework Source: Author, 2015.

An independent variable is one that a researcher manipulates in order to determine its effects on another variable, (Mugenda, & Mugenda, 2003). In the above figure, independent variables include; remuneration, recognition, supervision, working conditions and training. An intervening variable is used to explain the relationship between observed variables, such as independent and dependent variables, in empirical research. An intervening variable is recognized as being caused by the independent variable and as being a determinant of the dependent variable, (Orodho, 2004). In the conceptual framework, government policy is the intervening variable. Mugenda & Mugenda (2003), explains that dependent variable is one that varies as a function of the independent variable.

19. Research Methodology

19.1. Research Design

The research employed descriptive research design. Descriptive research studies are those studies which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual or a group of individuals, (Kothari, 2004). This design was adopted because it gives room for an in depth responses resulting in a better and a wider understanding of the phenomenon under investigation. According to Orodho, (2004), this approach should be used when the researcher intends to carry out a detailed analysis of a phenomenon. Therefore to analyze work motivation factors that influence job satisfaction among public secondary school teachers in Rarieda sub-county, this design was the best fit as it enabled the researcher to collect in depth information and carry out detailed analysis.

19.2. Target Population

A population size included TSC employed teachers working in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county. Out of a total population of 440 teachers according to available statistics, a sample size of 205 was used. The sample was derived using the formula, (nf=n÷1+n÷N), where n=384, (Mugenda, 2003).

19.3. SamplingDesign

A sample is the portion of the population targeted for the purpose of collecting information to infer something about the target group, (Zikmund, 2003). Zikmund, (2003) notes that sampling is useful for cutting down costs, labour intensity and time constraints. Systematic random sampling method will be used as statistical sample of research since it is simple to design, easy to use, easy to determine sampling distribution of the mean and it is less expensive compared to simple random sampling. From a population of 440, a sample size of 205 was selected using the formula (nf=n÷1+n÷N), Mugenda, (2003). According to Mugenda, & Mugenda, (2003), 10% of the total population is just enough. Under systematic random sampling, the items or individuals of the population are arranged in some manner. A random starting point is selected and then every kth member of the population is selected for the sample, Kothari, (2004).

Table 1. Sample Size.

Research Location Total Population Sample Population
Rarieda sub-County 440 205
Total 440 205

Source: Compiled Rarieda Sub-County Records, 2015

19.4. Data Collection Tools and Techniques

Primary data collection tools were employed. Self-administered questionnaires were used for data collection, and were divided into five sections; the first section comprised questions touching on personal data. The second section comprised of questions on job satisfaction. The third section asked questions touching on the four work motivation factors influencing job satisfaction. Section four comprised of questions on government policy. Section five involved ranking of the four work motivation factors. A Likert five choices Scale with intervals (highly satisfied, slightly satisfied, satisfied, not satisfied, and neutral) were be used.

19.5. Validity

Content validity of the study was upheld by ensuring that the questionnaires elicited the intended response from the respondents. Furthermore, the researcher ensured validity of the research results by engaging the supervisors, in addition, seeking of expert opinion.

19.6. Reliability

According to Orodho, (2012), reliability is the extent to which a questionnaire, test, observation or any other measurement produce the same results on repeated trials. Reliability of the study was ensured through test-re-test; where the questionnaires were pre-tested before the actual data collection, this was to ensure that the questionnaires elicited the relevant information from the respondents.

19.7. Data Analysis and Presentation

Data analysis consisted of examining, categorizing, tabulating, or recombining the evidence to address the initial propositions of the study, (Yin, 1994). Jorgensen, (1989) explains that the main aim of data analysis is to assemble and reconstruct data in a meaningful or comprehensible fashion. For the purposes of this study, data was collected, coded and analyzed. Computer software such (SPSS) will be employed to analyze the coded data. For descriptive statistics, measures of central tendency (mean) and measures of variability (standard deviation) were employed, in order to simplify, speed up and to enhance accuracy and validity of the analysis process. For qualitative statistics, inferential measures (correlation coefficient) were employed in order to determine and show the correlation relationship between work motivation and job satisfaction, Karl Pearson’s coefficient formula:  was operationalized.

Eventually, the analyzed data was presented using frequency tables, percentages since the techniques are easy to construct, simple and clear in understanding findings.

19.8. Ethical Considerations

The researcher upheld the research study ethics during and after the research period. Confidentiality and anonymity of the research respondents’ was guaranteed. Respondents did not reveal their names as the research was conducted anonymously.

19.9. Response Rate

Questionnaires with both quantitative and qualitative questions were administered to the sampled public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county. Table 2 below summarizes the response rate.

Table 2. Response Rate.

Respondents Administered Returned Return rate
Teachers 205 200 98%

Source: Field Data (2015)

From Table 2, a total of 205 (100%) were administered. However, 200 (98%) respondents responded to the questionnaires and returned. According to Mugenda and Mugenda (2003) a response rate of 70 % is just adequate. The 98% return rate was achieved because the researcher self-administered the questionnaires, which helped elicit cooperation by the respondents.

19.10. Demographic Characteristics of Respondents

The respondents’ demographic characteristics were categorized in terms of their gender, age, qualification, positions they hold at work place, and work experience.

19.11. Distribution of Respondents by Gender

The gender of the respondents was of concern to the study as it assisted the researcher to identify the dominant gender among the teachers in the sub-county. Table 3 shows the respondents gender distribution.

Table 3. Distribution of the Respondents by Gender.

Gender Frequency Percentage
Male 122 61%
Female 78 39%
Total 200 100%

Source: Field Data (2015)

Table 3 reveals that out of the 200 respondents, 122 making 61% of the total respondent population were male, with the female respondents being 78 a 39% of the total respondents’ population. This finding therefore establishes that in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county the male gender is a dominant 61% of the total teacher population in the sub-county.

19.12. Distribution of Respondents by Age

The age of the respondents was very pivotal as it assisted the researcher to identify the majority age of teachers in public secondary schools in the sub-county. Table 4 illustrates the respondents’ distribution by age.

Table 4. Respondents’ Distribution by Age.

Age Frequency Percentage
25-34 70 35%
35-44 54 27%
45-54 66 33%
55-60 10 5%
Total 200 100%

Source: Field Data (2015)

Table 4 shows that the respondents’ age distribution between (25-34) years was 70 in number, making 35% of the total respondent population. Those whose ages ranged between (35-44) years were 54, making 27% of the total respondent population. Those whose ages ranged between (45-54) were revealed to be 66, translating into 33% of the entire respondent population. The respondents who were between the ages of (55-60) were 10 in number, making into 5% of the total population of the respondents. According to the above findings, most teachers in the region are of entry age (25-34) years, at 35% of the entire respondent population. On the other hand, those in the (55-60) year’s age bracket are the least represented, at 5% according to this revelation. This means therefore that most teachers in the region are of active age. By implication, the workforce therefore should be energetic, innovative, creative, and productive.

19.13. Distribution of Respondents by Qualification

This was important to the study as it revealed the education levels of the respondents thereby shading light on the abilities of the respondents to carry out their responsibilities as class teachers, heads of departments, deputies and principals. Table 5 illustrates respondents’ distribution by qualification.

Table 5. Distribution of Respondents by Qualification.

Qualification Frequency Percentage
Diploma 40 20%
Bachelors 136 68%
Masters 24 12%
Total 200 100%

Source: Field Data (2015)

Table 5 reveals that a whopping 136 respondents, making 68% of the total respondents are bachelors’ degree holders. Diploma holders are 40 of the entire respondents, representing 20% of the teaching workforce in the region. Those with a master degree are revealed to be 24 in number, which translates to 12% out of 100%. The majority of teachers in the sub-county are therefore well qualified as teachers as is illustrated by the table. It is therefore expected that with these sterling qualifications, teacher performance, productivity, and drive for excellence should be tenable.

19.14. Distribution of Respondents by Position

This distribution revealed the positions of the respondents, which made clear their responsibilities and duties. It was important for the researcher to understand the tasks performed by the respondents as the study sought to establish teachers’ satisfaction in relation to their jobs. Table 6 illustrates distribution of respondents by their positions.

Table 6. Distribution of Respondents by their Positions.

Position Frequency Percentage
Class teacher 98 49%
HOD 58 29%
Deputy Principal 22 11%
Principal 22 11%
Total 200 100%

Source: Field Data (2015)

Table 6 reveals that among teachers in the region, 98 are class teachers, making up 49% of the total respondent population. The heads of departments amount to 58, representing 29% of the entire population. Both the deputy principals and the principals tie at 22 in number, an 11% a piece of the total respondents’ population. This data reveals that the majority of teachers in the region are actually class teachers, which is the lowest in the hierarchy. The numbers diminish up the hierarchy. These findings mean that the majority of teachers occupy the lesser responsibility positions.

19.15. Distribution of Respondents by Work Experience

Finding out the respondents’ work experience was fundamental to the study as their experience would relate to whether they are job satisfied or not. Table 7 illustrates distribution of respondents by work experience.

Table 7. Distribution of Respondents by Work Experience.

Experience Frequency Percentage
Less than 5 40 20%
5-10 64 32%
11-15 28 14%
16-20 30 15%
21-25 26 13%
Over 25 12 06%
Total 200 100%

Source: Field Data (2015)

Table 7 shows that teachers with less than 5 years’ experience amount to 40 in number, representing 20% of the total respondents’ population. Those with (5-10) experience are the leading majority of 64, a 32% of the entire respondents. Those with (16-20) experience are 28 (14%) of the entire respondents population. Those with (21-25) experience are 26 (13%) of the total respondent population. Those with experience of 25 years are 12 (6%) of the entire respondents’ population. As can be gathered from the table, teachers in the region are therefore experienced enough to understand work details which is necessary to respond to the questionnaires accordingly. This finding should impact on the teacher job satisfaction as the levels of experience vary among the teacher.

19.16. Job Satisfaction

The study sought to find out whether the respondents were satisfied with their jobs or otherwise. This was crucial to the researcher as the responses here laid important milestone to the very heart and advancement of the study objectives of. Table 8 shows job satisfaction responses.

Table 8. Job Satisfaction.

Satisfaction Frequency Percentage
Yes 62 31%
No 138 69%
Total 200 100%

Source: Field data (2015)

Table 8 illustrates that out of the 200 study respondents 138, representing (69%) of entire respondent population are not satisfied with their jobs; with a paltry 62 making (31%) of the total population indicating that they are satisfied with their jobs. This finding clearly indicates that majority teachers in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county are not satisfied with their jobs. This finding provided a strong premise to the study general objective that is to establish the influence of work motivation on teacher job satisfaction in public schools in Rarieda sub-county.

19.17. Extent of Job Satisfaction

Respondents were asked to reveal the extent to which they were satisfied with their jobs. This helped the researcher understand the degree to which the respondents were satisfied with their jobs. Table 4.8 illustrates the extent to which the respondents are satisfied with their jobs.

Table 9. Extent of Job Satisfaction.

Extent of Satisfaction Frequency Percentage
Highly satisfied 6 3%
Satisfied 48 24%
Slightly satisfied 8 4%
Not Satisfied 138 69%
Total 200 100%

Source: Field Data (2015)

Table 9 shows that among the 62 respondents satisfied with their jobs, 6 which make 3% of the total respondent population were highly satisfied with their jobs, 8 which translates to 4% of the entire respondent population said they were slightly satisfied with their jobs. This reveals the complex nature of measuring employee job satisfaction. However, 138 (69%) were not satisfied with their jobs. This implies that many teachers in the region studied are not satisfied with their jobs.

19.18. Salary/Remuneration Influence on Job Satisfaction

The first specific objective of the study sought to determine how remuneration influence teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county. Research findings reveal that the respondents agreed 100% that salary/remuneration influence teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county. This finding was fundamental to the study as it clearly reveals the significant motivational role played by remuneration. To ensure teacher motivation therefore, teachers should be remunerated well.

19.19. Extent of Salary/Remuneration Satisfaction

Table 10. Extent of Satisfaction with Remuneration.

Extent Frequency Percentage
Highly satisfied 10 5%
Satisfied 40 20%
Slightly satisfied 56 28%
Not satisfied 94 47%
Total 200 100%

Source: Field Data (2015)

The researcher sought to know the extent to which respondents were satisfied with their remuneration. Their responses revealed the variability existing in terms of salary satisfaction among the teachers in the region. Table 10 shows the respondents extent of satisfaction with remuneration.

Table 10 shows that 10 of the total respondents’, making up 5% were highly satisfied with their remuneration. Furthermore, 40 (20%) were satisfied with their salary, while 56 (28%) were slightly satisfied with their salaries. But 94 (47%) of the entire respondents population were not satisfied with their remuneration. These findings indicate that almost a half of teachers, population in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county are not satisfied with their jobs. In addition, some of those who feel satisfied with their salary only feel so slightly. This sheds further light on the need to improve teacher pay.

19.20. Job Satisfaction and Salary/Remuneration Relationships

Respondents who were both satisfied and not satisfied with their jobs were asked to state the extent to which they were satisfied with their salary. It was in the interest of the researcher to find out whether remuneration has any significant influence on job satisfaction. Table 11 shows extent of job satisfaction to extent to which satisfied with salary/remuneration.

Table 11. Extent of Job Satisfaction * Extent to which Satisfied with Salary/Remuneration.

    Extent to which satisfied with salary/remuneration Total
    Highly satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Not satisfied
Extent of job satisfaction Highly satisfied 4 2 0 0 6
Satisfied 4 32 10 2 48
Slightly satisfied 0 2 6 0 8
Not Satisfied 2 4 40 92 138
Total 10 40 56 94 200

Source: Field Data (2015)

From Table 11, among those respondents satisfied with their jobs, 58 out of 60 are satisfied with their remuneration while 2 of them are not satisfied. However, among those respondents not satisfied with their jobs, 46 out of 138 are satisfied with their salary, while a larger 92 are also not satisfied with their salary. It is therefore clear from these revelations that salary/remuneration influence teacher job satisfaction.

20. Remuneration and Job Satisfaction Correlation

The researcher sought to determine whether there exists significant correlation relationship between remuneration and job satisfaction. Table 12 illustrates the correlation.

Table 12. Correlation between Remuneration and Job Satisfaction.

    Are you satisfied with the job? Extent to which satisfied with salary/remuneration
Are you satisfied with the job? Pearson Correlation 1 .714**
Sig. (1-tailed)   .000
N 200 200
Extent to which satisfied with salary/remuneration Pearson Correlation .714** 1
Sig. (1-tailed) .000  
N 200 200
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).

Source: Field data (2015)

From Table 12, using Pearson’s correlation at significant level 0.01, the coefficient correlation between job satisfaction and remuneration is 0.714 which signifies that remuneration and job satisfaction are positively correlated. This finding therefore means that remuneration is a major work motivation factor since the correlation coefficient 0.714 is very close to 1. This implies that better pay leads to improved job satisfaction.

21. Working Conditions Influence on Job Satisfaction

The second specific study objective sought to determine the influence of working conditions on teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county. This was intended to reveal whether or not there was any significant relationship between working conditions and teacher job satisfaction. Table 13 illustrates the correlation using Pearson’s correlation coefficient of 0.01, coefficient correlation between working conditions and job satisfaction was 0.641. This implies that working conditions and job satisfaction are positively correlated. This finding therefore means that improved working conditions would lead to improved job satisfaction.

Table 13. Correlation between Working Conditions and Job Satisfaction.

    Are you satisfied with the job? Extent to which satisfied with working conditions
Are you satisfied with the job? Pearson Correlation 1 .641**
Sig. (1-tailed)   .000
N 200 200
Extent to which satisfied with working conditions Pearson Correlation .641** 1
Sig. (1-tailed) .000  
N 200 200
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).

Source: Field Data (2015)

22. Recognition Influence on Job Satisfaction

The third study objective sought to establish the influence of recognition on job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county. The respondents were therefore asked to state whether they had been recognized as a result of their work achievements or not. Findings indicate that 99% of the total respondent population agreed that recognition influence job satisfaction. However 2 respondents who make 1% of the population dis-agreed that recognition influence job satisfaction. Results indicate that recognition influences teacher job satisfaction.

23. Correlation Between Training and Job Satisfaction

The research sought to find out whether there exists correlation relationship between training and job satisfaction. Table 14 illustrates the correlation relationship.

Table 14. Correlation between Training and Job Satisfaction.

    Are you satisfied with the job? Extent to which satisfied with training attended
Are you satisfied with the job? Pearson Correlation 1 .150*
Sig. (2-tailed)   .034
N 200 200
Extent to which satisfied with training attended Pearson Correlation .150* 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .034  
N 200 200
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Source: Field Data (2015)

From Table 14 using Pearson’s correlation of significant level 0.05, correlation coefficient between training and job satisfaction was 0.150. This signifies that training and job satisfaction are correlated, however slightly positively correlated. This means improved training will lead to slight improvement on teacher job satisfaction.

24. Conclusions

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of work motivation on teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county. The study established that work motivation factors such as remuneration, working conditions, recognition, and training influence teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda Sub-county.

The first specific objective of the study sought to establish the influence of remuneration on teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county. The study concluded that nature of remuneration influence to a greater extent teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county. This included both the basic pay and the subsequent allowances. This was deduced from the fact that the study respondents felt that remuneration ranks top of the other variables.

The second specific objective of the study was to examine the influence of working conditions on teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county. The study concluded that working conditions influence teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county. According to the study findings, working conditions ranked third among the work motivation factors studied, with the study findings further indicating that the staffroom environment, classroom environment, health and sanitation being the most crucial subsets.

The third specific objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of recognition on teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county. The study concluded that recognition influence teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county. However the study revealed that recognition influence less compared to the other variables.

The fourth objective of the study was to determine the influence of training on teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county. The study concluded that training influence teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rarieda sub-county.

25. Recommendations for Further Studies

This study makes the following recommendations: that a more in depth study be conducted in other regions order to establish if the factors investigated in this study influence job satisfaction so as to validate the findings of this study or to establish new findings; further study be done to find out whether there exists other factors influencing teacher job satisfaction; more studies are recommended in order to establish why majority of teachers were satisfied with training yet the same teachers were not satisfied with their jobs.

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