Journal of Investment and Management
Volume 4, Issue 6, December 2015, Pages: 403-408

The Relationship Between Social Bearing Capacities with Conflict as a Result, in the Perception of the Visiting Historical Sites

Fatemeh Mirzaie1, *, Ali Akbar Nazari2, Hamid Zargham Boroujeni3, Mohammad Taghipour4

1Tourism Management, Non-profit Institution of Higher Education, ABA, Abyek, Qazvin, Iran

2Administrator of Non-profit Institution of Higher Education, ABA, Abyek, Qazvin, Iran

3Department of Tourism Management, Allameh Tabatabaie University, Tehran, Iran

4Research Assistant of Non-profit Institution of Higher Education, ABA, Abyek, Qazvin, Iran

Email address:

(F. Mirzaie)
(A. A. Nazari)
(H. Z. Boroujeni)
(M. Taghipour)

To cite this article:

Fatemeh Mirzaie, Ali Akbar Nazari, Hamid Zargham Boroujeni, Mohammad Taghipour. The Relationship Between Social Bearing Capacities with Conflict as a Result, in the Perception of the Visiting Historical Sites. Journal of Investment and Management. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2015, pp. 403-408. doi: 10.11648/j.jim.20150406.24


Abstract: Sustainable tourism needs to prevent the destruction and degradation of social, cultural and ecological systems in the host society. It is obvious that tourism development and social characteristics is changing. But this (whether positive or negative), and severity of these changes depend on the size and number of tourism activities. Any destinations accept specific level of tourism development that further development leads of the socio-cultural decline or reduce the quality of experience for tourists. On the other hand, tourists are faced with a conflict that already is not expect it And. This time the satisfaction of tourists decreased. The host society has a certain capacity for growth and development of tourism particularly hosting is in the monument with a rich history and ancient values. This requires attention to its own dimensions. In Iran, there are a few studies that examine factors affecting the perceived congestion are by foreign visitors. The aim of this study is to identify the concept of conflict and reaction to foreign visitors comes to this conflict. For this research data in holiday 1394 through questionnaires and interviews were collected by field. The populations of the investigation are foreign tourists visiting the palace complex. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics inferential. The results of the analysis of 100 questionnaires showed that 5's variable were effective on the perception of foreign tourists: history of visiting, Expected crowding, Tensions and physical contact, behavior of other visitors, the number of other visitor.

Keywords: Conflict, Social Carrying Capacity, Congestion Perceived Quality Views, Niyavaran Palace


1. Introduction

History of the effects of the increased use on quality entertainment experience, return after the Second World War The history of the study on carrying capacity as an entrepreneurial approach in the area outing return in the 1930 .The concept of carrying capacity due to increasing concerns about the negative effects of tourism studies came in tourism. According to this concept , came to a head in the 1960s and 1970s, and that was when the growth of a recreational center in the United States increased concerns about the use of a variety of recreational activities in place. (Getz, 1983)

As we expected, the relationship between usage and environmental conditions were considered. It was assumed that increasing use is causing more environmental impacts. Some effects were measured like soil compaction, destruction of vegetation, amortization of buildings and other related variables. But it soon became clear that there is another dimension of capacity dealing with the social aspects of the experience of visitors (Manning, 1997; Manning et al., 2002). The researchers found that increasing the number of visitors' affect not only environmental resource location, but also the quality of the experience of visitors.

The concept of carrying capacity has many definitions, but all these definitions are two common denominator: First, the biophysical factors that are associated with the integration of resource-based aspects and emphasized on threshold or tolerance levels that after the operation or use higher pressures may impose on natural ecosystems Second, behavioral component that shows the quality of the recreational experience. The importance of quality will be doubled Views. Of course, the tourists before choosing their destination obtain information about it and next choose it. So gathering information led to a mental image of the destination. Conflict in tourism occurs when tourists are faced with a situation that is different from what had been on his mind. . If the saturation of tourism development happened, may be the attractions fail and hurt where tourists want to experience them,. Gradually destination loses the quality and popularity. . For example, one of the most common issues that tourists who want to visit historic sites is a conflict, is the waiting time. Before entering the site Visitors often have thought about the antiquities, historical objects dating back to the set and so on. And have made mental image about that. But on arrival at the sight lines crowded with face with duality, and this duality will be even greater after entering and seeing internal congestion. This duality is called conflict. here Conflict is between the mental image of tourists and tourism products, in reality the difference between actual waiting time waiting time expected by visitors by visitors. Standards determining the capacity in relation to tourist image are the following:

2. Theoretical Foundations of Research

Tourist’s social carrying capacity, representing the maximum number of tourists and a variety of activities in one place that they don't make unacceptable experience. Therefore, experience quality management of visitors is one of the functional aspects of social carrying capacity in tourism. Altman says:"conflict occurs when visitors experience some situation and compare them with their perception of what is acceptable (standard) and if they feel crowd, the visit won't be successful (Altman. 2009).

Most in 2005 in his article that said every man to see things and focus directly on the object stare.

If we consider the intersection point of the along of that and the subject, there will be a point that human focus is placed on that. He mentioned to the point purpose because he wanted to say of historical tourist focus on something more than recreation and enjoyment, and it is experience and knowledge with the incentive of information about historical reality, they have chosen their favorite place. Earning new knowledge makes a different situation from just entertainment experience. Host community has a certain capacity for the development of quality tourism. Particularly host is a monument with a rich history and ancient values. This requires attention to all its dimensions.

Conflict is one major source of stress and dissatisfaction accordingly. Tension makes conflict that usually has three categories. Miller considers them in 1959 thus:

1) Conflict pleasant / pleasant: conflict is in the result of two incompatible positions, but pleasant to be created. For example, people who travel to participate in special festivals and see overcrowding, although experiencing causes internal conflict, but they usually can solve this type of conflict, easily. While they pay expeditions, they enjoy, too. They will have more excitement when they see more size of the congestion; they think this event is more important.

2) Conflict unpleasant / unpleasant: struggle creates in the result of already imagination and unpleasant situation. For example, those who suffer serious illness and may have to travel for treatment, they see bustle in different parts of the reception and treatment, so they think it's a very unpleasant situation. Those who fall into this situation, try to find a better solution and often hesitant between some selection. They express Discontent and to others are persecutions, because of them. Unpleasant / unpleasant situations are stressful for most people and difficult to be solved. Because there are many different between their previously thought of what is seen and perceived.

3) Conflict unpleasant / pleasant: there are both features pleasant and unpleasant when happens a in a location. This type of conflict is unpleasant and may be resolve difficultly. For example, people who want to visit all the objects and works in an ancient place see everything with great precision and patience. They may want to improve their information, at the same time want to avoid wasting the time of them and others and visit a museum without fatigue or block routes, and person is in a position that does not satisfy the interests and demands. But he knows the cause of this failure return to external factors such as other visitors, officials, and a small space..... . In fact, it can be said that this is the most complex conflict because the adverse effects of this type of conflict would be more damaging for tourism. As a person with previously thought, has the objectives and pre-determined programs to achieve their goal, but the after attending in the environment, goals failed or are in a position to unacceptable. There are many differences in the perception of the crowd of people and everything that are in the environment and this is an important issue and effective on the conflict. Theorists believe that congestion depends on our understanding of the position. Patterson (1976) believes that congestion can occur when people experience arousal due to the very close vicinity with others. Other researchers confirmed this statement and say that the documents proved that there are something more in a collection that can reduce congestion experience (Vrshl and Astrsvn, 1978) The using of social comparison theory, Baum, Fischer and Salomon (1981) believe that having the right information before the destination, especially about the time of the visit, about situations with high density can reduce stress and Discontent of congestion. When people are constantly exposed to environmental stimuli are identified, adaptation is one of the ways to change the perception of these stimuli (Vlvyl, 1974). For example, a person who has prepared to visit from morning, after attending in a tourist collection and seeing the congestion at the entrance, he waits, in the queue like others. . After entering the collection and encountering congestion and noise during circulation even physical contact and conflict with others, it may appear a loud and Unacceptable noise, at the beginning. But it will be uniform soon and it will be more mindfulness. So unpleasant environmental factors may be more intense for newcomers and they are more annoying for them. Despite Our ability to adaptation our perceptions with new environments, surely we are not safe from their effects, even after the source is removed Discontent. . We call it "subsequent undesirable effects". In one experiment, the participants were taken to a quiet room. Those already were in a noisy environment, unpredictable and uncontrollable noise; they were underperformed in editing the text (Glass Vsygr, 1972.123). Of course there are other factors that affect people, especially tourists and play an important role in adaptation. It is community's culture. In general Culture contains social factors, individual and situational assessments from density by visitors. The fact is that criteria are different from each of culture to another culture. The definition of privacy is different in various places. For example, German tourists have limits for the presence of strangers. But an Arab tourist he did not define it the same. He could even be at a distance of less than a meter with a group of strangers to sit and have lunch. The different reactions return to education, the environment, education, customs and culture of each country. Because of ethnic and tribal life and group life Arabs accept presence of others easier than those who see culture and their life not this way. Generally, when people feel conflict, total individual satisfaction begins to reduce and final suitability will be negative. This shows that the total number of tourists on the site is more than numbers that can be tolerated, which led to the failure of visitors and dissatisfied in the end. Failure happens when they look for a certain purpose but face with, an obstacle frustrated. For example, traffic is a normal source failure that can affect people's frustration. Of course, most of them are short-term failures and less important but some failures will be of great concern, in the field of tourism. Particularly Feedback of tourist s experience is the best advertisement for inviting more tourists to destination. In fact, a tourist destination stays with tourist’s satisfaction and reflects of the satisfaction. This is more important when it sends out of bounds of a country and it happens with consent of the foreign tourists. Thus, the researchers went for knowing further about variables that people exposure them in high density sites. we Often call it "the evaluation index" (Weaver, 2010, p. 14). According to studies, conflict and the subsequent discontent comes from several factors. Generally, when a few people or a few units require the use of certain resources to achieve a shared goal, there will be possibility of conflict especially if it is rare.

It can be concluded that the e historical sites are scarce resources; In addition, factors such as internal control, staff, how to enter and exit, facilities and infrastructure, pricing, tips and brochures are not enough. There are other external factors that effect on the management of the collections and they are usually hidden from view of managers.

3. Research Methodology

The aim of this study is practical, it is a field survey in terms of how survey data collection, the method of data analysis is descriptive. It is cross-sectional in terms of time research. The study population was foreign tourists. In this study, random sampling or available was used and a questionnaire was used as a measurement tool. at the beginning we gave the questionnaire to visitors who agreed to complete it and we asked that they answer questions and return the questionnaire to the researcher after the meeting and before leaving the site. To increase the validity of the questionnaire, it confirmed by professors and experts. Finally, in the period of research, 107 questionnaires were completed, which, 100 questionnaires could be analyzed. The time span of this study was the first to thirteenth April 1394. Vesk and Hebrelyn suggested a relatively simple that shows the perceived congestion of people in the crowded the site. They have to choose one number from 1 to 9 to show amount of crowded that they felt. The range of responses 1 and 2 show that the site was not crowded at all, answers 3 and 4 show a little congestion, 5 to 7 shows that the average congestion and 8 and 9 show overcrowding. . Responding to this range is easy and interpreting is easier and so far in several studies is used to assess the perceived congestion. In this study, the perceived congestion was assessed in 3 point of Site (the entrance, the interior, surrounding areas and external). In addition, tourists answered g affecting variables on conflict and the relationship of these variables with perceived crowding was measured. In order to analyze the data, SPSS software was used. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, t-test for independent samples, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlation analysis.

3.1. The Study Area

(Historical-cultural complex)Niyavaran is located in the northern parts of Tehran and is located on the slopes of the Alborz mountain range, near the height of 1800 meters above sea level. This is surrounded with 12 hectares and has a total of appropriate vegetation and green space. This collection has a steep gradient from north to south. Uneven topography due to a variety of location of buildings that multiple variations of green space are to be formed. Since we have to consider this area of tourism and history itself, because it is very sensitive and fragile sites and has great historical value to the development of tourism. From this perspective study results will help the management and planning and the relevant authorities.

3.2. The Results

-Perceived crowding

This chart shows the breakdown of responses to the perceived congestion frequency on the whole 9 options. Average total crowding has provided in a three-point of site. People had to choose from 1 to 9 for showing the crowding. According to the theoretical foundations, Niyavaran will be set in the range of average busy.

Table 1. The breakdown of responses to the perceived congestion frequency.

maximum minimum Change rang variance standard deviation face median average Perceived crowding
9 2 2.50 5.35 7.16 5.00 5.00 3.07 Outer space palaces
9 1 5.00 5.00 1.21 1.49 5.00 5.00 Entry routes
9 2 7.00 3.16 6.33 5.49 6.00 6.00 Interior Museum space

This chart shows the breakdown of responses to the perceived frequency crowding on the whole 9 the option shows. Average total congestion has provided in a three-point of site and shows range of 5.5 that it is relatively busy. It mentioned that the average response to perceived crowding was 3.07 in outer space palaces and, as well as 5 and 6 are in entry routes and Interior museum. It can be said from the perspective of visitors there aren't sense of crowded in outside the palace a lot, but perceived congestion have reached saturation point in the other parts of the site.

Factors influencing the perception of conflict of visitors

Repeat Visitors

We see Variable frequency visitors in the sample show that the results have shown 91 people have come for the first time, 9 people had met again.

Figure 1. The frequency of visits charts.

Previous visiting experience about the site leads to the formation of expectations about its density and congestion and affects the perception of visitors. Solidarity test results showed that the previous meeting effect on the crowd perceived by respondents. On expression of a more scientific there is significant relationship between perceived congestion of the visit and the previous experience. It is strong and negative relationship. The experience player is. There is less perceived crowd, if people have more experiences. The results of data analysis showed that the majority of respondents were first visited the palace. Perhaps this means that respondents have no idea about the density of the site. . Accordingly, it may be said that those who had visited most of these places it will crowd and therefore less crowd reported.

Table 2. The result of ANOVA to evaluate differences in perceived crowd based on meet experience.

perceived crowd based on meet experience sum of squares Degrees of freedom average of squares Fisher statistics A significant number
Between groups 11/104 9 1/234 0/736 0/995
Within groups 157/336 90 1/748    
Total 168/440 99      

3.3. Expect of the Density of Site

Table 3. The expect of congestion frequency chart.

Variable Abundance Abundance percent
I expect to see less Size of these people 49 49
I expect to see more than this Size of people 7 7
I expect to see the same Size people 18 18
No previous comment about it 26 26
  100 100

The results of the relationship between people's expectations of density and perceived crowding on proved the findings of the literature and previous research that there was a positive relationship between these two variables. According to the literature, the expectations of people before arriving at the site compared to what's really experience can affect their perception of crowd. As if visitors deal with the number of people more than their expected, perceived crowd will increase. However, the strength of this relationship was very weak.

Table 4. ANOVA test results for evaluating differences in perceived congestion considering expected congestion.

perceived crowd based on expected congestion sum of squares Degrees of freedom average of squares Fisher statistics A significant number
Between groups 12/702 9 18/323 12/689 0/000
Within groups 89/732 90 1/032    
Total 102/740 99      

It was used the Pearson correlation coefficient to investigate the relation between independent variables (expected congestion) and the dependent variable (perceived crowding). The results at the confidence level of 99% indicates a significant positive relation between these two variables, however the relation is weak.

4. Conclusion

Considering high volume of requests to visit the recreational resources, experience quality management is very important visitors. Perceived crowd, is one of the indicators determine the quality of the recreational experience. Studies have shown that in addition to site density, there are other factors are involved in the perception of crowd. The variables effect the perception of conflict of foreign visitors from Niyavaran collection. Based on the findings, on average, the perception of visitors is moderate crowd. In addition, among variables, the variable's history of visitors and previous expectation of density showed that there is a significant relation between them and perceived crowd. Visitors had visited the site with the more number of their expectations, reported more crowding. . This finding was in a line with previous findings in the literature of this subject. In this respect, the importance of accurate and realistic expectations in the minds of visitors before the site has doubled. Thus, before reaching to destination, realistic expectations have to form in the minds of visitors and consequently faced with a busy site will not be deterioration of the quality of their experience. For this purpose, we have to improve informative websites of Niyavaran and about the peak time of visit, and put some pictures of the site at this time in the site. The findings of this study and similar studies can help managers in identifying the factors that affect the quality of the leisure experience of visitors. They can use the results of the evaluation for management decisions and prevent the degradation of the quality of visitors' experience. Therefore, managers should permanently ensure quality of entertainment experience and to make appropriate solutions.

5. Research Limitations

Because of time limits, this study only happened in one of the peak visiting time, while there are tourists who come to visit the palace in the other peak periods in the spring and summer. In addition, Lake of Knowledge of English by some of the foreign tourists and also not knowing other languages more than English limits for the interview caused some limitations.


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