Journal of Investment and Management
Volume 5, Issue 6, December 2016, Pages: 166-170

Job Satisfaction of Low-skilled Employees of Manufacturing Industry in Bangladesh: A Case Study

Ruhul Amin

Department of Management Studies, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science & Technology University, Gopalganj, Bangladesh

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To cite this article:

Ruhul Amin. Job Satisfaction of Low-skilled Employees of Manufacturing Industry in Bangladesh: A Case Study. Journal of Investment and Management. Vol. 5, No. 6, 2016, pp. 166-170. doi: 10.11648/j.jim.20160506.20

Received: September 26, 2016; Accepted: October 7, 2016; Published: November 19, 2016


Abstract: Employees are one of the most important stakeholders in an organization because the employees provide their efforts; share their knowledge, skills, mental and physical abilities that contribute to the productivity and profitability of the organization. So, the organization should do everything they need to retain the employees. Job satisfaction is one of them. But the factors of job satisfaction of low-skilled employees are different from those of high-skilled employees. The objective of the study is to examine the factors and level of job satisfaction of low-skilled employees in manufacturing industry; Meghna Cement Mills Ltd., Bangladesh. Data had been collected through a case study, semi-structured interview and observation. This study reveals that job satisfaction level of full time low-skilled employees is much more than that of casual low-skilled employees in Meghna Cement Mills Limited. According to this study, equal benefits and wages, medical allowances, education, house rent and entertainment allowances, yearly leave and festival bonus, weekly holiday, tolerable working hours, job security, life insurance, compensation in case of any accident, scope to relax, good relation with the supervisors and existence of labor union should be considered as the most important factors to motivate and satisfy the low-skilled employees in an organization specially manufacturing organization. The findings and theoretical discussion of this study will help the concerned parties for further studies and policy formulation.

Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Low-skilled Employees, Meghna Cement Mills Ltd., Bangladesh


1. Introduction

An employee will incline towards the growth and success of the organization only if he is satisfied with his work as well as with the organization and this satisfaction with the work and work environment is known as job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is one’s attitude towards his job (positive or negative). The basic element of employee job satisfaction is satisfaction in work and the work environment [6]. Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job [3]. Job satisfaction is the degree to which the worker’s work-related expectations match his/her experiences in the work environment [13]. It is an appraisal of the perceived job characteristics and emotional experience at work [1]. Job satisfaction is the orientation that employee has towards his work. Job satisfaction is also known as employee satisfaction. Employee satisfaction is the terminology used to describe whether employees are happy, contended and fulfilling their desires and needs at work [19]. Employee job satisfaction is determined by the presence of job pleasure and absence of job discontent [15]. Job discontent and job pleasure are important ingredients of job satisfaction [9].

Job satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors, e.g. the quality of one's relationship with their supervisor, the quality of the physical environment in which they work, degree of fulfillment in their work. Employees tend to prefer jobs that give them opportunities to use their skills and abilities and offer a variety of tasks, freedom, and feedback on how well they are doing [1]. A robust job selection process helps in augmenting the job satisfaction of employees; this is because a good experience in job selection process stays with the individual and thus is a healthy beginning for a congenial job experience [9]. Gupta and Sharma [7] have classified the various factors influencing employee satisfaction under two groups: environmental factors, which include leadership and planning in the organization, individual participation, recognition and rewards, team work and cooperation, and training program and physical factors which include corporate culture, communication working conditions and other dimensions. Narayanan and Zafar [12] in their research identified that the major factors influencing job satisfaction are sex of the employee, experience, treatment by superiors, work environment, emotional intelligence. According to Gupta and Sharma [7], opportunity for self-development was biggest satisfier, followed by work, opportunity for promotion, and job security. Uddin et al., [18] conducted study over 400 corporate executives of telecommunication industry in Bangladesh. The study showed that inspiration of the communication between the company and employees, learning environment, need of the employees, and mental satisfaction about the job and supervisors’ evaluation system play a significant role in developing employee satisfaction level in the telecom industry in Bangladesh.

But the job satisfaction factors of low skilled employees are different from those of high skilled employees in manufacturing industry. They are mainly motivated and satisfied with the financial benefits and services. They are not so much eager for social affiliation, self-esteem, rewards and recognition for their performance. They expect to get due wages and benefits, job security and expect the supervisors to have a good relationship with them. They also like to be the members of labor union who will raise their voice against any discrimination found in the work and workplace. This paper focuses on identifying the major determinants and level of job satisfaction of low-skilled employees in manufacturing industry, Bangladesh.

1.1. Objectives

The main objective of the study is to examine the factors and level of job satisfaction of low-skilled employees in manufacturing industry in Bangladesh. Job satisfaction represents one of the most important areas of concern for managers because it is what productivity depends on. If the employees are satisfied, they would contribute to superior performance leading to profitability of an organization. Therefore, the study focuses on the factors influencing job satisfaction so that the management can improve upon them in order to go to the culmination of success.

1.2. Limitation and Further Research

The study was limited to only one case study. Therefore, to further evaluate the major determinants and level of job satisfaction of low-skilled employees in organizations, research involving more case studies would be useful. Also, further research could focus on collecting and analyzing empirical data from manufacturing industries and comparing the results with the findings of this study.

2. Literature Review

Job satisfaction is a positive emotional state resulting from the evaluation of a person’s job [8]. Job satisfaction is also defined as an individual’s general attitude regarding his or her job [14]. Various factors such as an employee’ s needs and desires, social relationships, style and quality of management, job design, compensation, working conditions, perceived long range opportunities, and perceived opportunities elsewhere are considered to be the determinants of job satisfaction [2, 10]. Mullins [11] mentioned that motivation is closely related to job satisfaction. Hossain and Rahman [17] examined job satisfaction at different manufacturing industrial sectors in Bangladesh. It is found that for maintaining harmonious relationship at industrial premises twelve factors are much influential such as job security, work environment, healthy and safely measures, fair practices of Labor court, wages & monetary benefit, grievance handling procedures, industrial democracy, participation in decision making, training and development, structured conflict resolution procedures, strong collective bargaining agent, existence of Trade union and have positive influences with job satisfaction [17]. Job satisfaction has a significant influence on employees’ organizational commitment, turnover, absenteeism, tardiness, accidents, and grievances [2,10]. According to Robbins [14], a satisfied workforce can increase organizational productivity through less distraction caused by absenteeism or turnover, few incidences of destructive behavior, and low medical costs. Job satisfaction increases attendance, motivation, and reduces turnover. Flanagan and Flanagan [5] explored that professional level, relationship and communication with employee is the important and affective sources of job satisfaction, e.g. employee experience, demographic characteristics had been identified and found that there is significant relationship found in job satisfaction and job performance. So, it can be said that satisfied workers are happy workers. Happy workers are more productive for the organization [4].

Many researchers have conducted study over job satisfaction of high-skilled employees but very few researchers have conducted study over job satisfaction of low-skilled employees. Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine the factors and level of job satisfaction of low-skilled employees in manufacturing industry; Meghna Cement Mills Ltd., Bangladesh. The limitations of study may be helpful to the other researchers for further development. This study will help the academicians, researchers, different private and government organizations, Human Resource policy makers to formulate policy and conduct further studies in future.

3. Data and Methodology

The data required to prepare this research report had been collected through case study. Case study research is one of the most common approaches applied in the field of research. Yin [16] advocates that case study method provides an opportunity to study a phenomenon within its natural context. As a result, this study employs a case study research method based on a manufacturing organization, Mghna Cement Mills Ltd., Mongla, Khulna that provides different benefits and services for different levels of employees. Moreover, data were gathered through semi-structured interviews, review of company documents and observations. The interviews were conducted with two lower level employees (one was permanent employee and another one was casual employee) and one engineer personnel. There was also a review of relevant literatures relating to the subject that assisted in developing further prompting questions during the interviews. Different tables and graphs have been used to analyze and represent data.

4. Findings and Discussion

4.1. Background of Meghna Cement Mills Ltd

Meghna Cement Mills Ltd. is the first manufacturing unit of Bashundhara Group and it is one of the largest cement industries in the country producing nearly 1 million metric tons a year. The Meghna Cement Mills Ltd is an International Standard Organization (ISO 9001: 2008) certified company having accreditation of manufacturing products for both domestic and international markets. The company is listed with both Dhaka and Chittagong Stock Exchanges, the two bourses of the country since 1995 and 1996 respectively. The company markets its product under the registered trade mark "King Brand Cement".

There are 4 nos. of grinding mill in MCML having production capacity of 3000 MT/ day and these mills are equipped with high efficiency separator to segregate fine particle from the coarse one. The dimension of each of the 02 (two) mills is 3m diameter x 9m length (production capacity 30 TPH) while the each of the rest 02 is 3m diameter x 11m length (production capacity 40 TPH).

There are 4 nos. of cement silo for cement storing purpose in MCML, where the capacity of each of the first 02 silo is 3500 MT while the capacity of each of the rest 02 is 5000 MT. Cement is extracted from the cement silo through extraction system which consists of roots blower, inlet box, pneumatic shut off valve, flow control valve etc. which are controlled from the control room of the pack house. There are 2 nos. of roto packer having packing capacity of 100 MT / Hr. and 110 MT / Hr. respectively. These packers are the equipment of modern technology where weighing system of the delivered cement sack is fully electronic based to ensure proper weight of every sack of cement. Mainly paper made cement sacks are preferred for filling purpose although small percentage of poly sack are also used based on the consumers’ demand. It may be mentioned here that, the paper sacks are manufactured by the Sack plant of BG. There exists 02 modes of cement delivery system i.e. road delivery and vessel delivery available in this plant. To prevent bag bursting while loading in vessel one spiral chute has been designed with the barge loader. To ensure smooth delivery of cement sacks 19 nos. ten wheeler and 16 nos. six wheeler company delivery trucks are being used. There exists a modern equipped jetty facility in this organization where the sea going vessel can berth easily. There exists 02 nos. of hydraulic crane of modern technology of German origin having unloading capacity of 250 MT/Hr each of which contribute a lot to faster unloading.

4.2. Analysis of Job Satisfaction of Two Low-skilled Employees of Meghna Cement Mills Ltd

Habib Rahman, one of the lower level employees in Meghna Cement Mills Ltd., has been working for last 3 years in this industry. He is 28 years of old and his education level is H.S.C and he is now on the way of completion of graduation in Accounting from a private university. He gets BDT15000 per month and he is a full time employee. So he gets almost all benefits and services from the organization [Habib Rahman]. Now the factors and level of job satisfaction of Habib Rahman are given below:

Table 1. The factors and job satisfaction level of Habib Rahman, Meghna Cement Mills Ltd., Khulna, Bangladesh.

S.L Particulars Degree of answer
1 Do you get medical allowances? Agree
2 Do you get education allowances? Agree
3 Do you get house rent allowance? Agree
4 Do you get entertainment allowances? Agree
5 Do you get weekly holiday? Agree
6 Do you get festival bonus and leave yearly? Agree
7 Are you forced to work more than eight hours? Disagree
8 Do you get incentives for your best performance? Agree
9 Do you get compensation in case of any accident in working place? Agree
10 Do you get any scope to relax? Agree
11 Do you get any training to improve skills? Agree
12 Do you have job security? Agree
13 Do you have any life insurance? Agree
14 Do you have good relations with your supervisors? Agree
15 Do you get equal benefits and wages? Agree
16 Does your organization have labor union? Agree
17 Are you satisfied with your job? Agree

Source: Field study

From table1, it is found that he is enjoying all the benefits and services included in the questionnaire. He gets medical allowances, education, house rent and entertainment allowances. He is enjoying weekly holiday, yearly leave and festival bonus. He does not have to work more than eight hours. Moreover, he gets incentives, compensation in case of any accident to him, also gets scope to relax, and gets scope to be trained to improve his skills. He has job security and status in the organization, life insurance, good relation with the supervisors and also gets equal benefits and wages in comparison to other low-skilled full time employees. The organization has labor union through which they can raise their voice against any discrimination found in the workplace. So, he is very much satisfied with his job and expecting to continue his job in this organization [Habib Rahman].

Now, Mohammad Hanif, another lower level employee in Meghna Cement Mills Ltd., has been working for last 5 years in this industry. He is 32 years of old and his education level is class 8. He gets BDT14000 per month but he is not a full time employee. He is a casual employee. So he does not get equal benefits and services from the organization like Habib Rahman and he is feeling insecure about his tenure [Mohammad Hanif].

Table 2 shows that Mohammad Hanif does not get medical allowances, education, house rent and entertainment allowances. He is enjoying weekly holiday, yearly leave and festival bonus like Habib Rahman. He has to work more than eight hours but he gets incentives, compensation in case of any accident to him. He does not get any scope to relax, scope to be trained to improve his skills. He does not have job security and status in the organization and does not have life insurance but has good relation with the supervisors and does not get equal benefits and wages in comparison to other low-skilled full time employees like Habib Rahman. So, he is not much more satisfied with his job. He is also expecting to continue his job in this organization like Habib Rahman but he does not know what will happen in the next day? [Mohammad Hanif].

Table 2. The factors and level of job satisfaction of Mohammad Hanif, Meghna Cement Mills Ltd., Khulna, Bangladesh.

S.L. Particulars Degree of answer
1 Do you get medical allowances? Disagree
2 Do you get education allowances? Disagree
3 Do you get house rent allowance? Disagree
4 Do you get entertainment allowances? Disagree
5 Do you get weekly holiday? Agree
6 Do you get festival bonus and leave yearly? Agree
7 Are you forced to work more than eight hours? Agree
8 Do you get incentives for your best performance? Agree
9 Do you get compensation in case of any accident in working place? Agree
10 Do you get any scope to relax? Disagree
11 Do you get any training to improve skills? Disagree
12 Do you have job security? Disagree
13 Do you have any life insurance? Disagree
14 Do you have good relations with your supervisors? Agree
15 Do you get equal benefits and wages? Disagree
16 Does your organization have labor union? Agree
17 Are you satisfied with your job? Disagree

Source: Field study

Table 3. Comparison of benefits and services and job satisfaction level of Habib Rahman and Mohammad Hanif.

S.L. Particulars Habib Rahman Mohammad Hanif
1 Do you get medical allowances? Agree Disagree
2 Do you get education allowances? Agree Disagree
3 Do you get house rent allowance? Agree Disagree
4 Do you get entertainment allowances? Agree Disagree
5 Do you get weekly holiday? Agree Agree
6 Do you get festival bonus and leave yearly? Agree Agree
7 Are you forced to work more than eight hours? Disagree Agree
8 Do you get incentives for your best performance? Agree Agree
9 Do you get compensation in case of any accident in working place? Agree Agree
10 Do you get any scope to relax? Agree Disagree
11 Do you get any training to improve skills? Agree Disagree
12 Do you have job security? Agree Disagree
13 Do you have any life insurance? Agree Disagree
14 Do you have good relations with your supervisors? Agree Agree
15 Do you get equal benefits and wages? Agree Disagree
16 Does your organization have labor union? Agree Agree
17 Are you satisfied with your job? Satisfied Dissatisfied

Source: Field analysis

Table 3 shows that Habib Rahman is enjoying medical, education, house rent, entertainment allowances and also enjoying weekly holiday, yearly leave, festival bonus and other incentives. He has job security, good relation with supervisors, not forced to work more than eight hours a day. So, he is very much satisfied with his job. Whereas, Mohammad Hanif is not enjoying all benefits provided by the organization. He is just enjoying weekly leave, yearly leave, festival bonus, few incentives, and compensation. He gets support from his supervisors when he faces any problem but he has to work more than eight hours a day and he has no job security. So, he is not satisfied with his job. So, it can be said that equal benefits and wages, medical allowances, education, house rent and entertainment allowances, yearly leave and festival bonus, weekly holiday, tolerable working hours, job security, life insurance, compensation in case of any accident, scope to relax, good relation with the supervisors and existence of labor union lead to job satisfaction of low-skilled employees in a manufacturing organization. Now, these factors or variables are given below with the help of a figure:

Figure 1. Factors of job satisfaction of low-skilled employees.

5. Conclusions

Employees are the key role players in every organization as employees make the way of achieving the organizational major goals and objectives smoothly and effectually. So, the level of job satisfaction of the employees is very crucial and significant for the advancement and growth of the organization. The findings reveal that Habib Rahman, one of the low-skilled employees in Meghna Cement Mills Ltd., is much more satisfied than Mohammad Hanif, another low-skilled employee but not full time in Meghna Cement Mills Ltd. because Habib Rahman enjoys almost all the benefits and services provided by the organization. Mohammad Hanif does not get all the benefits and services. He enjoys weekly holiday, yearly leave and festival bonus, incentives, compensation in case of any accident to him. He has also good relation with the supervisor. The results of analyses have also identified a few crucial issues that may be taken into consideration for further studies. This study may expect other researchers to conduct study over the impact of job satisfaction of low-skilled employees on the productivity and profitability of an organization.


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Biography

Ruhul Amin

Recently, he has completed his BBA in Management Studies from Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Bangladesh. Now he is seeking for his MBA program in Human Resource Management from the same university and also serving as a part-time lecturer under department of BBA in N. Haque College of Business and Technology, Bangladesh. He has published different research articles in international arena. His research areas are ICT, Education, Management, Motivation, Job satisfaction, Human Resource Management and Gender issues.

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