Effective Time and Self Management, Environment and Productivity in an Organization
Michael Lawrence Mogga Rombe
Department of Business Administration, School of Management Sciences, University of Juba, Juba, Republic of South Sudan
To cite this article:
Michael Lawrence Mogga Rombe. Effective Time and Self Management, Environment and Productivity in an Organization.Science Journal of Business and Management. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2016, pp. 204-211. doi: 10.11648/j.sjbm.20160406.15
Received: September 21, 2016; Accepted: October 5, 2016; Published: December 20, 2016
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to determine the effectiveness of time management in relation to self management, environment and productivity in an origination. This work applied some instruments for data collection such as questionnaires and observations on 75 academic staff and non academic staff selected randomly in the University of Juba and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was applied to analyze the data gathered. The findings suggest that time management has an inverse relationship with self management, environment and productivity in an organization. It is recommended here that necessary time management tools and favorable working environment should be applied and provided strictly to staff with modern management approaches to boost self commitment to time management and improve productivity in an organization (University of Juba).
Keywords: Best Practices, Time Management, Effective, Procrastination, Self Management, Productivity, Environment
The main objective of this piece of work is to work out and determine the relationship between time and self management, productivity and environment in an organization, a case study of the University of Juba
Time is a precious good to both employees and employers in a modern organization. Self here refer to our characters as persons towards managing time during working hours. Time management is self management, when time is effectively managed; the person becomes more productive with less procrastination. Working environment should be made conducive for job to be done effectively. Provisions of good working environment work as positive booster for self motivation and level of productivity in any organizations, based on best time management practice.
Time management has been defined as cluster of behavioral skills sets that are important in an organization. Time management skills include Activities performed by academic and non academic staff such as planning in advance, lectures preparations and prioritizing. Effective time management has a positive impact on productivity of an employee in an organization (Eid M.Nermin et al; 2015)
Time management is a system for planning, controlling and using time in the most efficient and effective manner. To manage time demands commitment and readiness to keep up with its programme, though it is not easy as we think. Time is capital but not a renewable income. It flows from future to the past. As such we should develop plans for each day in our working life and should be ahead of time before beginning to work for example, tomorrows plan is done today.
Time is an expensive capital, we all have it regardless of our social, religious or bureaucratic status, therefore; we must exert extra care in its usage for achievement of our pre set goals. Once it is not effectively used we will not recover what has gone, so; time is now for whatever we want to do when we are active in life.
Time is a very important asset, and we cannot store it, once it is gone, it has gone forever, and therefore we must be extra careful in managing our time because it is limited and once it has gone we will not get it back.
The application of strong measures of time control is paramount for the attainment of our organization goals because it has an inverse relationship with self management, productivity and environment. "Time is your life…to waste your time is to waste your life, but to master your time is to master your life and make the most of it." (Alan Lake in)
2. Theoretical Framework
"Time management is the act or process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activity, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency, or productivity."(Wikipedia). Time management may be aided by range of skills, tools and techniques used to manage time when accomplishing specific tasks, projects, and goals complying with a due date. Time management system is a designed combination of process, tools, techniques, and methods and in is usually a necessity in any project development as it determines the project completion time and scope. (Wikipedia)
Time is one of the most important assets we ever have. Each one of us has equal time per day month and year. Its consumption and utility depends on how we exploit it. It can be enough or not enough. Time management is a system for controlling and using time as efficiently as possible (Maitland, 1999,). Time management is self management, organizing oneself to better manage time consuming activities. Structuring, developing to-, do –list, overcoming procrastination, and develop time management techniques for effective time use.
In time management best practices, system should be flexible so that it can be adjusted according to the dynamics of environment. We must be alert to the challenges that all are happening in our dynamic world. For example, when you open your e-mail in the morning, you probably face a blizzard of communications, however; "Realistic time management and organization plans can improve productivity and the quality of life the key elements of the time management are goals, organization, and relaxation"
Time is limited, transitory, and fleeting, therefore, it is difficult to control it. One may feel that she /he has little time to day but enough tomorrow, yet when tomorrow comes she/he will be just as busy. It is not easy to use time efficiently and effectively. Yet one must work hard so that tasks are accomplished and results realized on time. Empirically, time management must have a unified approach, should embody effects and aspects of our work at all time, and should be continuously amended and updated to meet our ever challenging dynamic development.
However; Personal time management skills are essential skills for effective time management. A person who uses this skills and techniques routinely is the highest achiever of goals in all works of life.
The best is stay one day a head i.e. staying one day a head of your classes makes a student life much easier. The same with an official, so staying a head is one of the best strategies in time management. However; time management has become increasingly important for managers as they seek to attain goals through the work force in their proactive organizations.
2.1. Time and Self Management Steps
• Create a schedule/ daily calendar (print or electronic) that you carry with you to and from work.
• Record all activities and have a copy of every document you sign
• Have maps in your car or in the office
• Have a pad and a pencil next to the phone
• Is there an official, set time when someone looking for you will find you in your office?
• Set goals
• Stop Procrastination
• Track Time
• Create an environment conducive to effectiveness
• Set priorities
• Carry out task around those priorities
• Relate process of reduction of time spent on-no priorities
• Set incentives to modify behavior to ensure compliance with time related deadline
• Revisit goals periodically and adjust accordingly
• Purge: Get rid of items on the schedule that remain at the bottom and will actually not get done
If you deal with things in a logical, orderly sequence, you’re sure to bring efficiency and results to your efforts.
To manage time effectively and efficiently demands a high degree of commitment, perseverance and readiness to keep up with its programme and one should thank oneself on each progress, no matter how small it may be because incorporation of complete programme of time management into professional life is not easy. Time is a capital and not a renewable income, a capital which we are forced to draw on every moment of our lives, with the results that it is constantly dwindling. There is no way for replacing our capital; once it has gone it has gone forever.
We have responsibility for our precious capital asset (Time). if time is wasted, for example, used in activities that bring no benefits to ourselves; then it is our own precious capital that we are wasting. Since, the capital is ours, we have absolute right to waste if we so wish but not to blame someone else upon our wasteful ways. "The minutes of our lives are capital rather than renewable income, and when a minute has gone it is irrecoverable (Fontana, 1993,)
2.3. Time Limits
The true nature of time is that it flows from the future to the past and each of us has limited time to experience this flow and find more productive means of utilizing it. Therefore, we must understand the value of our work. Which should be hard and effective? Otherwise, we are wasting our capital and in the same way causing damage to our mental and physical health and in the process we are doing nothing. What concern us most is effective use of our limited capital (asset) per day, week, month, and year for our benefits and that of the others. We should not expect perfections, though goals are attainable. We have to design programmes to help us manage our time efficiently. In doing so, we must start with our realization that time is very important, consequently motivating ourselves to use this limited asset with some care, as we devote our selves to spending of" gold coin". People from all works of life and particularly managers; have often commented life time is always not enough. For example, they complain "there aren’t enough hours in the day". How am I ever going to get all of this done"? We should always bear in minds that time is limited and it cannot be stored as such we have to use it efficiently for our benefits in modern life.
2.4. Time Plan
For us to make the best use of our time we should begin each day with a working plan and this should be set much ahead of time commencement of work. It is done by constructing a written list of everything you need to do. Analyze each item on the list and assign it a priority; of course not all activities are equally urgent. When we are organized, we turn to attain high productivity in accordance to timely set goals. We need to organize our task such that we know what needs to be attained when and how best practices are set out.
Most of us delay difficult tasks as long as possible and spend time on easy interesting activities, which are not good. Difficult tasks are to be divided into small manageable tasks; each should be assigned high priority. In this way they can be done. Hence; difficult tasks are to be divided into small manageable tasks; each should be assigned high priority these are hours when we feel fresh, alert and energetic. These should be devoted to accomplishing high priority task and must be kept as free from interruption as possible (For example visits’, e-mails and calls and counseling).
Tasks must be organized in terms of priorities for example urgent, important, good and fair for quality production timely to meet customers’ tests and satisfactions. The development of goals is critical for organization success. We need to organize and execute around priorities.
Mangers who manage their time carefully and effectively are more successful and more productive. So it is important for us to master the art of time management and improve our managerial abilities. Good time managers make best and effective use of available resources, and time is a resource which is only consumed and cannot be stored. However since time management is a continuous function, it needs interest from managers for it is development, because "time management is self management" (Maitland, 1999) and it is like a wave it does not wait for any one, once it is gone, it is gone forever. As such, time is basic and vital in our daily life and actions. Time management is important to successful performance and development in such careers as management. Managers should plan and effectively manage their time and should consider the following for effective and efficient use of time;
Managers in all levels should allocate enough time to each task (progrmme) and must be committed to time schedules. Time management as such requires self management so that it becomes every day habits in the following sense.
• Pay attention as to how time is spent
• Don’t procrastinate on what is to be done. Do not leave work, task, projects or assignment until last minutes, and
• Learn the art of delegation. Delegate things that do not need your attention to subordinates and follow up
There must be adequate information at the right time to enable managers make proper analysis of both internal and external environment effectively and timely. To analyze the issues that affect individual use of individual time.
Effective and efficient time management requires good planning in each level and nature of job. Anytime spent by an individual on effective planning saves sufficient time for execution of tasks and for self relaxation, therefore; the following should be taken into consideration
• Keep goals in mind and identify strengths and weakness, values and priorities
• Recognize self defeating problems such as fear and anxiety, difficulty concentrating, poor time management indecisiveness and perfection
• Set realistic goals.
• Compare actions with values.
• Discipline yourself to use time wisely (S,Up.S.University, 2009)
• Know that overcoming procrastination is easier if you discuss out strategies for change with a colleague.
d) Follow up and evaluate:
Plans must be clear, and mistakes and deviations are corrected and adjusted accordingly.
Successful delegation save valuable time for top managers who delegates selected activities to subordinates and retain responsibilities.
Management should be we organized and task prioritized.
g) Controlling Time waste:
Managers should be ready to face up to formal meetings within an organization and they should be familiar with the "dos and don’ts" of socializing with colleagues and they should know that "interruptions destroy concentration" (G. Mark 2007).
Good time managers are those persons who are capable to achieve their planned net goals upon their limited time and able to do so without draining much of their physical and psychological resources; important factor in management of time is to believe in ability to manage effectively and efficiently.
"Good time management = Right motivation, right frame of mind and right technology". (Fontana1993) Good time managers are those people who can control time wasting activities that disrupt designed time management system, they must know how to cope up with varying interruptions and how to manage and solve other people s problems. This can be dealt with by being kind and assertive whenever necessary. Minimize interruptions as possible to concentrate on task at hand.
However; to enable managers to control time waste they must undertake the following:
• Manager must be capable of coping up with interruption of any nature and
• After having worked hard, one must rest to refresh so that he/she can be ready to work effectively again
2.5. Time Management is Good for the Following reasons
1) Greater control
2) Improved productivity
3) Increased free time
4) High forecasting and visibility
5) Create better working environment
2.6. Time Forecast
Time management is not simple to implement especially if it is not forecasted effectively. The following are to be taken into consideration
1. Work load, Attitudes and Habits
If a good and relevant system is established, then plans can be adjusted, and priorities are made; for example, urgent important and not important activities
2.7. Time Mismanagement
To mismanage time is a mistake of highest order, for example, "doing nothing work" that is of no value to our benefits, especially during the official working hours. Therefore, time mismanagement needs real dedication by individuals and organizations. For people to be committed and dedicated there should be favourable working environment and job satisfaction. We must be careful about scheduling our working time; otherwise, forcing people to work in the time not liked by them is a great damage, and we cannot strike the target goals. Clear objectives, prioritized and carefully planned goals and the use of diaries are very essential to avoid time mismanagement
2.8. Self Management
Self management is an individual’s use of documentation to monitor, evaluate and reinforce his or her behaviors (King Sear1997). Human behavior is extensively motivated and regulated by ongoing exercise of self –influence. The self –regulated mechanism operates through the following three sub functions
2.9. Self Monitoring
It determinants, and affect judgment of one’s behavior in relation to personal standard, environmental circumstances, and effective self relation
• Identification and understanding of the goals behaviors and performance standards.
• Development of self monitoring mechanism.
2.10. Self Evaluation
It is a mechanism which plays a central role in the exercise of personal agency by its strong impact on thought, concern, motivation and actions
• Comparing employees performance with standards or targets
• Implementation of employees strategy
• Review work plan: Managers should review the work plans regularly for the following reasons
• To make sure that tasks are done accordingly and divisions are corrected
• Weigh up priorities and make decision about next step
• Getting things off mind
• To delete anything done or not to be done and get clean clear current complete plans
• To decide on priorities and
• To make sure that all tasks have been recorded
2.11. Self Reinforcement
Though it is compared to attainment of targets domain, in the moral domain, the evaluative standards are more stable and the judgment factors are more varied and complex. Determining relevant reinforcement strategy within the natural environment performance, however; practicing self regulation is possible if a person has access to well refined values strategies manifested in good work habits
2.12. Empirical Literature
Managing time effectively requires a distinction between what is important and what is urgent. Expert in time management agree that the most important task usually aren’t urgent task (Elsabahy el al, 2015). The objective of effective time management is to achieve the life style balance we want and increase job satisfaction for academic staff and officials today one of the most important challenges facing organization is to satisfy and retain employees who are known as one of the most important differentiating success factor (Holley, 2013) However; Sound understanding of time management helps in managerial skill development to all organizations. (Elsabahy el al, 2015)
Managers can improve their performance and promotion potential with more effective time utilization, through time management programme to learning strategies for improving time management skills (Courier, 2014). Good time management Skills can eliminate a lot of time resource stress and reduce its negative effects. Time management skills include interpersonal skills and organizational skills. Personal skills in time management is personal affairs and should be matched with management style of a person and the situation, where as organizational skills is about individuals who work in an organization and have managerial experience including six dimension which are as follows: goal setting, prioritizing goals, and activities, operational planning, delegation, communication and meeting management. (Arc.App.Sci 2013). However an employee who knows how to manage time effectively speeds up new advances and enabled to spend more time with leisure activities (Eid et al;2015)
Procrastination is very common and takes place in everyday behaviuor. Wide range of studies links it to personal behavior factors, such as lack of motivation, deficiencies in self-regulation, external locus of control, perfectionism, disorganization, and poor time management (Gafani R. et al 2010). The effectiveness of time management helps develop task oriented coping behaviuor in the of demand on person and equips him/her to mobilize and utilize resources in an effective manner. (ELsabahy, H, El, et al 2015)
If you want to get more done, take the ownership of your time. Look for ways to automate or delegate activities that are not of a good use to your time and focus on self directed goals that only you can achieve, Recognize and hounour your physical limitation and used your vacation time. Top performers view time off not as stalled productivity but as an investment in their future performance (HBR 2016).
For an employee to be committed managers should know that meeting some human needs and desires like mental and physical exercise, social bonding self-worth self esteem, sense of competence and recognition preserve employees attention towards improved productivity and goals attainment (Husseini et al, 2013)
This article applied multiple methods of data collection such as questionnaires and field observations for primary data where as secondary data were collected from articles, books, records, journals and related documents.
The sample of 75 staff was selected randomly (Both academic and non academic staff) from the university work force. The data was collected with the help of the teaching assistants who are undergoing post graduate studies in the School of Management Sciences. A pilot study was done on 10% of the study to test the validity and feasibility before using it.
The information gathered was used for examining the effective time and self management, environment, tools and techniques used and level of productivity in the university. For the data analysis, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used. Empirical data analysis method was used for information observed in the field. Data were presented using descriptive statistics; it is worth mentioning here that the study of Academic and non Academic staff in respect of time management couldn’t be done outside their context.
The findings were suggesting that there exist inverse relationship that links up time, self management, environment and productivity. Therefore; it is recommended that necessary time and managerial tools and necessary tools and equipment are provided to improve time and self management and quality of goods and services produced by the University.
4. Results and Discussions
|Classification of staff||Frequency||Percent|
About 85, 5 % of the employees in the sample size were found to be classified, this includes academia with different degrees, 10.7% respondents were unclassified and 4% did not responded. However; based on the observation unclassified staff are more than classified staff, If we also divide classified and academia, academic staff are less than classified staff. This shows that the university needs more academic staff to manage academic activities effectively and efficiently.
In table 4-2 two it is evident that 68% of the classified staff report to the work at 8:30AM. This is because lectures start and 9:00AM. where non Academic staffs have to come early at 7:30 for the preparation of office and lecture halls. For those who came at 9:10 Am are support administrative staff who are staying in the suburbs of Juba and therefore; accessibility to transport is a problem to them. Commercial transport in many cases charge high, they mostly scramble to access of easy transport.
It is observed that academic staff keeps time because they are bound lectures time scheduled according to each colleges and departments, therefore; time management is highly observed by this category of respondents.
|Time for leaving work||Frequency||Percent|
Figure three shows that about 54.7 respondents leave work at 5:00PM, 26.7 leave at 4:00PM.4% leaves work at 3: PM. And 10.7% leaves at 8:00 PM. These information’s tell us that those respondent who stay up to 8:00 PM are academic staff who are either having lectures in the evening from 5;PM to eight 8:00PM or those academia who are staying far and have to make preparation for next day lecture using their own local power sources since they reside in remote areas. Those leaving at 3 are either academia that have completed their lectures and staying far in the suburbs, so they have to go and attend to their other issues, some of them are administrative and unclassified staff who are escaping work. These also suggest that those who leave work at 4:00PM too escaping work because in the University working hours are 8 per day from 8AM ends at 5PMwith one hour break. Those who leave at 5:00 PM are classified staff and support staff that leaves the work according to official plan where as4% is in different.
|Working hours||Frequency||Percent %|
It is true that number of working hours in South Sudan is 8hours per day which is reflected by 57.3% respondents,20,% of respondents said working hours are 10 hours per day,16.0% of them said there are only 6 hours per day, and 6.7 respondents didn’t respond. This information reveals that, there are some few staff who work more than others and this could be mostly academia based on observation who spend most of their times with students in the laboratories or dissertation reviewing or discussion to enable students produced good results or academia who are making preparation and having some community outreach assignment. The 57.3 are mostly support staffs who works according to time schedule of the university where as those who reveal that staff works for 6 hours are the classified and unclassified staff that comes to the place of work either late or leave work earlier.
Figure five above shows that 81.3% of the respondents agreed that leave scheme exists for the University, while 10.7% respondents said there is no leave scheme. An observation reveals here that since the University was established, it has leave scheme covering all types of leave whether academic or normal leaves. All these leave times are given to all staff to relax and return to do their work with fresh mind and energy.
The figure above reflects that 78.7% respondents said that there is transport, where as 18.7% indicated that there is no transport and 2.7% did not respond. The observations reveal that there is transport for academic, classified and unclassified staff covering some areas in Juba. Since other areas are not covered it is logical to say no transport from and to the place of work. This affects the staff that stay in the areas are not included in the University transport scheme. However they negatively economically affected and consequently procrastination and inefficient productivity
Figure seven shows that about 48.0% of the respondents said that equipments available are adequate, 49.3% reflected that office equipments and tools available are not sufficient and inadequate 2.7% respondent abstained themselves.
However; based on the observation, it is clear that the tools and equipments available are not enough and inadequate, most Information Computer Technology (ICT)equipments are old and not always updated to follow dynamic development in the world, Other tools and machines are old and maintaining costs are very high.
All the deficiency is because budget lines approved for Universities are not sufficient and cannot meet the demand of the University to meet international dynamics and the requirements for necessary tools and equipments for both academic and non academic (for offices and Labs uses) However; non availability of the necessary tools and equipments affects the productivity negatively in all works of life.
Figure eight above shows that 69.3 staff agreed that work plan is available for the University. It is true that work plans are in place and this is reflected in the present annual academic calendar for the University and Colleges, School and Centers table. This is also an indicator of efficient and effective use of time by the university colleges, School and Centers. The figure also suggests that 25.3 respondents show that there is no work plan. This article categorically disagrees with this suggestion and agrees with afore mentioned. Lastly the figure suggested that about 5.3% respondents did not respond, therefore; they are in-different.
Figure nine suggests that 76.0% of the respondents agreed that staff participate in setting University goals. The article concurs with this suggestion because it is observed that Deans and Directors, Heads of Departments and Heads of Units participates in setting University goals which are to be attained through long term, medium and short term plans available, where as 22.7% disagree and they are those who are dismayed with the implementation of set plans due to non availability of the necessary funds from the treasury for higher education programmes only chapter one is funded, and 1.3% were in different
Time management is self management each of us has the same number of seconds to use as we think best, but we don’t all use them to best advantage and we don’t all invest them wisely. We have to manage our time in an efficient way to avoid wasting our precious resource Time management is very important capital, when it is gone it is irrecoverable and draws from future, as such it is vital for us to exploit our capital effectively during our active period. Hence; Self management is all about monitoring, evaluating and reinforcing one’s behavior in our life time. However; for progress of any organization in all aspects, a healthy, thoughtful, and creative workforce should be used since use of physical and mental health work force in many organizations have showed high and quality productivity (Arch.App.Sci2013) and it require time best practice. As managers; our most satisfying work comes about when we’re playing off offense, working on projects that we initiate, and look for best ways to delegate activities that are no suitable for out time use and say no to projects that are not a priority and maintain a relentless effort on set goals, reward your-self. (HBR 2016)
As an organization and for the University to achieve its goals effectively, it is necessary to avail all the necessary tools and equipments required, to create conducive environment for effective and quality production.
It is recommended that some specific time management tools could further be studied to discover more problems solving mechanism in respect to the time management in the University and or Government of South Sudan at large.
However; the findings showed that time management has an inverse relationship with self management, productivity and environment in an organization. It is recommended that necessary time management tools should be applied strictly to staff with modern management approaches to boost self commitment to time management and improve productivity in an organization.
The study recommends further study in the important of time value and knowledge in the University. It could be done in collaborative discussion with academia and staff to encourage team and collaborative learning to bridge the gap and create better working environment and relationship to boost productivity.