Science Journal of Business and Management
Volume 5, Issue 1, February 2017, Pages: 27-36

Retail Attribute’s Effect on Shopping Motivation and Customer Loyalty: Age as a Moderating Variable

Agung Yuniarinto1, *, Armanu Thoyib1, Solimun Solimun2, Andi Sularso3

1Department of Management Science, Faculty of Economics and Business, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

2Statistical Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

3Faculty of Economics, Jember University, Jember, Indonesia

Email address:

(A. Yuniarinto)

*Corresponding author

To cite this article:

Agung Yuniarinto, Armanu Thoyib, Solimun Solimun, Andi Sularso. Retail Attribute’s Effect on Shopping Motivation and Customer Loyalty: Age as a Moderating Variable. Science Journal of Business and Management. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2017, pp. 27-36. doi: 10.11648/j.sjbm.20170501.14

Received: January 27, 2017; Accepted: February 14, 2017; Published: February 25, 2017


Abstract: The study was based on the Stimulus Organism Response (SOR) theory stated by Mehrabian-Russel which aimed to analyze the effect of retail attribute on utilitarian, hedonic shopping motivation and customer loyalty. This study also aimed to test the age as the moderation variable effect of the retail attribute on the utilitarian, hedonic shopping motivation and customer loyalty. The respondents of study were 150 people. Sampling was done by convenience sampling. Collecting data used personal questionnaire through face to face interviews. Questionnaires were distributed to customers who visited the shopping mall. Data were analyzed by Partial Least Square (PLS). The results showed that the retail attributes had positive and significant effects on the utilitarian, hedonic shopping motivation, and customer loyalty. The age was the moderating variable effect of the retail attribute on utilitarian shopping motivation. The practical implications of this research was to develop segmentation, customization and innovation of retail attributes as an important strategy to overcome the differences in store attribute effects on the values of shopping and customer loyalty.

Keywords: Retail Attribute, Utilitarian Motivation, Hedonic Motivation, Customer Loyalty


1. Introduction

A research on customer behaviors is very important to explore their buying behavior toward certain product or service [1]. Customer behavior research is divided into three perspectives, namely the decision-making perspective, the experience perspective, and behavioral-influence perspective. The behavioral-influence perspective focuses on the customer behavior and possible environment which affects it [2]. The environment of retail customers includes retail attributes and other situational factors [3]. The atmosphere of a shopping center (mall) has been proven to be a greater influence on purchasing decision of customers than the influence of offered products [4]; [5]. Other studies indicated that the frequent change of mall atmosphere affects customers in purchasing unplanned goods [6]; [7]. The availability of time for shopping also shows an influence on customers’ decision to purchase products either in hedonic or emotional way. Babin and Attaway (2000) [8] suggested that the physical environment in retail business can cause a positive or negative effect on customers decisions.

Previous studies shown an increasing interest in behavior aspect of hedonic shopping) [9]; [10]; [4]. This study was based on the model of Stimulus Organism Response (S-O-R) proposed by Mehrabian and Russell (1974) [2]. S-O-R Model has three components: environmental stimuli, emotional states, and approach-avoidance response. Consumer behaviors occur as a result of their emotional reaction (organism) to environmental stimuli. This research was conducted to analyze: (a) the effect of retail attribute on the customers’ utilitarian shopping motivation; (b) the effect of retail attribute on the customers’ hedonic shopping motivation (c) the effect of retail attribute on the customers’ loyalty (d) the effect of utilitarian shopping motivation on customers’ loyalty (e) the effect of hedonic shopping motivation on customers’ loyalty (f) age as a variable moderating influence of the retail attributes on the utilitarian shopping motivation, hedonic shopping motivation, and customers’ loyalty.

2. Literature Review

2.1. Atribute of Retail

Kotler and Armstrong (2012) [11] explained that retailing includes all activities involved in selling goods or services directly to final consumers for personal, non-business use. A retailer or store is any business enterprise whose sales volume comes primarily from retailing. Retailing includes all ctivities involved in selling goods or services directly to consumers. Consumers’ decision in buying products often take place in retail, because an information obtained by consumers in retail or communications is made when shopping strongly influences the purchasing decisions. Besides, the store’s image also affects the purchasing decision of consumers. Martineau (1958) in Wang et al. (2000) [12] stated that the retail image can be defined into consumers mind as a functional combination of retail, quality, and an impression of psychological attribute which exist in retail. If a company is able to create a positive impression toward retail, then it is expected that consumers will be satisfied and will hopefully make the process of re-purchasing in the future.

With the better image of the retail, consumers will be more likely to shop or buy in retail. Some researchers highlight that the image of retail is the most important determinant in influencing consumer purchasing behavior [12]. Retail image has several dimensions and must be measured by several attributes [13]; [12]. One of the attributes used to measure it is a retail attribute. Retail attribute is defined as the sum of all the existing attributes of a retail, as it has been experienced by the buyers through their shop visiting [14]. At a retail, elements such as displays, lighting, music, scents, colors, employees who assisted in the sale and demonstration of the product, are designed or produced to evoke positive feelings of the shoppers [12].

Kotler (2009) [5] argued that to develop retail business, managers need to recognize consumers in making decisions because they do not only look at the product quality, but they also consider other factors. Consumers tend to pay attention to the total products including service provided, warranty, packaging, and payment systems. Another important characteristic of the total product is the place where the goods are purchased, usually called as the physical environment or atmosphere. According to Turley and Milliman (2000) [15], physical environment may create the shopping experience for consumers which in turn will affect consumers’s emotions regardless positive response or a negative response. Consumers who gave a positive response will shop longer and will affect the occurrence of impulse buying, while consumers with a negative response will quickly abandoned the shopping areas.

Previous literatures presented the conceptualization of the retail attributes. A study conducted by Koo (2003) [16] proposed seven components of the retail attributes: retail ambience, location, leisure facilities, value, service employees, after sales service, and merchandise or variations of products and brands that are provided by the company. Sopiah (2008)[17] stated that the retail attribute’s component can affect consumers in shopping, where it can be built through product displays, retail environments atmosphere, and layout.

2.2. Mehrabian - Russell Model

The Mehranian-Russel model known as the Stimulus - Organism - Response (S-O-R model). This model explains the relationship between environmental stimuli, the emotional states, and approaching or avoidance responses. Environmental stimuli consists of three elements: ambient, design and social. Ambient is a comfort atmosphere perceived by customers when observing the products offered. Design is the physical aspect of a mall. Social is factor relates to the presence of employees and customers in a mall. Basically, the Mehrabian-Russell model suggests that enviromental stimuli affects emotional state of who will get a response in the form of behavioral approach or avoidance. Behavioral approach is the behavior toward various environmental stimuli and emotional state of a person. Avoidance behavior is a behavior away from environmental stimuli and emotional state of a person. Mehrabian-Russel model is presented in the Figure 1 [18].

Figure 1. Mehrabian-Russel Model.

Figure 1 illustrates that a person's emotional state affected by environmental stimuli originating from outside the individual. Pleasure refers to a person's emotional state of joy, satisfied or other emotions in a shopping place. Arousal refers to a person's emotional condition of the excitement, alert, active sense of freedom to do things in a shopping place. Dominance refers to a person's emotional state of controlled feeling or free feeling to do something in a shopping place. Behavioral approach is the behavior of a person to stay longer and interact with others in retail. Avoidance behavior is the behavior of a person to leave a shopping place as a response to perceived unmet desires.

2.3. Shopping Motivation

Motivation is a condition which is activated or driven where a person directes the behavior to reach the goal. This includes impulse, desires, hopes, and desires. Motivation begins with the stimulus that spurred the introduction of requirements. These stimuli can come from inside consumer and from outside consumer. If the stimulus cause the difference between the desired and the actual situation, then it will arise needs. Needs are grouped into two aspects, utilitarian need and hedonic need. Utilitarian need is a desire to resolve the underlying issues, while hedonic need is the desire to meet the requirements of social and aesthetics [19].

Kotler and Armstrong (2012) [11] stated that consumer buying behavior is influenced by four characteristics, cultural, social, personal, and psychological. Psychological factors have greatly influenced by motivation, perception, learning, beliefs, and attitudes. While shopping activities are based on desire that is inside the consumer. Motivation plays an important role in shopping behavior because without motivation there will be no sale and purchase transactions. In addition, shopping motivation also reflects the general trend of the actions of consumers while shopping. This trend can be realized in the purchase decision process that includes the pattern information, search alternative evaluation, and product selection.

2.4. Utilitarian Shopping Motivation

Shopping motivation is defined as the reasons that encourage consumers’ behavior which leads to them to the market in order to fullfill their internal needs [13]. Babin et al. (1994) [8] stated that shopping motivations can be categorized in two aspects, utilitarian and hedonic. Utilitarian shopping motivation (USM) is a characteristic associated with the individual tasks that must be met, product-oriented, rational, and driven by extrinsic motivation. Furthermore, Schifman and Kanuk (2007) [20] stated that USM is a motivation for someone to get the price, products and services in the supermarket and efficient use of time and energy. To sum up, USM emphasis on the value of shopping is beneficial, as something associated with the task, sensible, cautious, and the efficiency of the activity. Therefore, Schifman and Kanuk (2007) [20] argued that cognitive evaluation using the mind in measuring the utilitarian motivation is much more dominant than emotional evaluation. During this process the consumer is selecting, organizing, interpreting information, and creating a meaningful picture of the shopping places. In addition, Engel et al. (2001) [21] stated that the benefits of the utilitarian is an objective functional product attributes, whereas the benefits of the hedonic, by contrast, covers emotional respond, pleasure of the senses, dreams, and aesthetic considerations.

Stimulation in the shopping place such as in certain mall, can provide important information that will encourage consumers to form judgments about the product, price and service given. According to Baker et al. (1994) [22], shopper ratings for the quality of goods and services, as well as the comfort in a supermarket lead to the increasing utilitarian motives. Singh (2006) [23] proved that the stimuli affects utilitarian motive as measured by cognitive evaluation. Sing (2006)[23] found that the stimuli affects hedonic motive, where both have different effects on shopping behavior in regards to the duration of staying in the supermarket and product or service repurchasing.

Stoel et al. (2004) [24] conducted a study to examine the effect of retail attribute on hedonic and utilitarian motive in puchasing certain product. Study results show the positive effect of retail attribute on utilitarian shopping value. Hartono (2011) [25] conducted a study about the effect of supermarket attributes on hedonic shopping motivation, utilitarian shopping motivation, and customer loyalty. The results showed that the supermarket attributes comprising supermarket atmosphere, location, facilities, services, and merchandise positively and significantly impact on hedonic shopping motivation. Zhang et al. (2011) [7] conducted a study in regards to the effect of the mall environment or atmosphere on the shopping value and the behavior of Chinese consumers. The results showed that the mall environment and product quality have a positive effect on utililarian shopping value. Based on the above findings the first hypothesis is formulated as follows:

Hypothesis 1: Good retail attributes will increase customers’ utilitarian shopping motivation.

2.5. Hedonic Shopping Motivation

The criteria used when considering the hedonic benefits are subjective and symbolic. Utilitarian and hedonic benefits generally work simultaneously in a purchase decision. Hedonic shopping motivation is more likely in the aspect of leisure, pleasure, motivation is intrinsic. The hedonic shopping motivations potentially provide entertainment in shopping so that consumers can enjoy the benefits of a product without purchasing it [26]. The hedonic shopping motivation itself can be interpreted as shopping behavior associated with intrinsic reason, multisensory, fantasy and emotional aspects in fullfiling the needs [9].

Furthermore, the concept of hedonic shopping motivation consists of six dimensions: 1) adventure shopping, that is done for the adventure purpose and feel a different world, 2) social shopping, that is feel enjoyment when shopping with friends or family, socializing and interacting with others while shopping, 3) shopping for gratification, that is done to relieve customers’ stress, reduce boredom, and please themselves, 4) the idea of shopping), that is customers shop because they follow fashion trends and new model, as well as to explore new products and it’s innovation, 5) role shopping, that is done because customers want something for someone else, and 6) shopping for value, that is done for searching the discounts and the products or services with low price.

Some researchers believe that hedonic shopping motivation is positively associated with customer loyalty. Dawson et al. (1990) [26] explained that customers who are motivated largely by hedonic aspects are expected to behave loyal to a Mall. Based on the hedonic point of view, customers shop for fun, enjoy benefits and pleasures [27]. By contrast, utilitarian point of view, argue that customers focus on efficient way to achieve their goals with minimal time and effort.

The rate of hedonic and utilitarian shopping benefits have been always associated with the retail shopping experience in general [12]. The study on retail attributes as a potential antecedent between the value of utilitarian shopping and hedonic shopping still very rare in the marketing literature [28]; [29]; [30]; [24]. One of study examined the relationship between faith retail attributes and hedonic then compared with utilitarian shopping value. By taking respondents in the shopping center in the US Midwest region, the study measured how satisfy they were using 18 mall attributes. All items are then summarized to make the overall measure of confidence about the mall attributes. The findings show a positive relationship between satisfaction on mall attributes and both utilitarian and hedonic shopping.

Research by Stoel et al. (2004) [24] showed a positive effect of mall attributes on hedonic shopping value. Similarly, research by Nguyen et al. (2007) [14] indicates that the supermarket attribute positively and significantly affect hedonic shopping motivation. Research by Hartono (2011) [25] and Zhang et al. (2011) [7] also showed that the supermarket attributes comprising supermarket atmosphere, location, facilities, services, and merchandise, positively and significantly affect hedonic shopping motivation. Based on the above findings the second hypothesis can be formulated as follows:

Hypothesis 2: Good retail attributes will increase customers’ hedonic shopping motivation.

2.6. Customer Loyalty

Customer loyalty is defined as a commitment to repurchase or subscribe to a product or service consistently in the future so that it can lead to the repetition of the same purchase despite the influence of the situation and the various marketing efforts that have the potential to act displacement [31]. The literature study indicates that customer loyalty has a various proxy variables according to the observed objects, namely: store atmosphere intentions, store loyalty, and behavior loyalty [32]; [16].

Koo (2003) [16] Suggests two dimensions of loyalty, behavioral and attitudinal aspects. Behavioral aspects focuse on the customers’ behavioral aspects, while the attitudinal aspects associated with the customers’ psychology. Koo (2003) [16] defines customer loyalty as the customers’ tendency to subscribe a store, and customers are loyal if the store has become the primary choice when they shop.

Dick and Basu (1994) [33] explained that without customers commitment on a store in visiting or repurchasing, then the customers are called as spuriously loyal or inertia customer. Customer commitment is required as a condition of the emergence of loyalty, so that customer loyalty is defined as customers’ commitment at a particular store [16].

Oliver (1999) [31] states that there are three components to build loyalty. First, belief (cognitive) which indicates the level of customer confidence to a product that originated from customer retention to the name of the product that eventually forms fidelity. Second, affective which indicates customer's emotional condition, where it is a fundamental building of customer loyalty. Third, action (conative), indicates the customer decision to act loyally.

Zhang et al. (2011) [7] show that there is a positive effect of mall environment on utilitarian shopping value. Futher, he state that the stimulation in the shopping place (mall) can provide important information that will encourage consumers to form judgments of the product, price and service given in mall. According to Baker et al. (1994) [22], shopping ratings on the goods and services quality, and the supermarket comfort lead to the increasing utilitarian motives. Research conducted by Nguyen et al. (2007) [14]; Hartono (2011) [25]; Zhang et al. (2011) [7]; Nejati and Parnia (2012) [34] show a significant effect of retail attributes on customer loyalty. Their research also show a significant effect of utilitarian and hedonic motivation on customer loyalty. However, the results of those studies differ from Abednego’s (2011) [35] findings, which show that the utilitarian motivation has no significant effect on customer loyalty. This difference is suspected because of the differences in the research object. Based on the above research results, some hypotheses can be formulated as follows:

Hypothesis 3: Good retail attributes will increase customer loyalty.

Hypothesis 4: The increase of utilitarian shopping motivation will increase customer loyalty.

Hypothesis 5: The increase of hedonic shopping motivation will increase customer loyalty.

2.7. Demographics as the Moderation Variable

Some researchers found that demographic characteristics consist of gender, age, income, marital status effect buying behavior [36]; [37]. Several researchers also found that demographic characteristics effect customer buying behavior; Nguyen et al., 2007). [14] The study indicates that the age variable could strengthen or weaken loyal customers attitude at a particular retail. Older customers tend to purchase with a utilitarian than hedonic motivation [13]. Older customers were also more loyal to the store or supermarket than younger customers [14]. In addition, older customers were also more planned and rational compared to younger customers [38]. Results of other studies indicate that age had a significant effect in moderating the effect of hedonic shopping motivation and store attribute on customer loyalty [41]. Meanwhile, other studies show that gender does not have a moderating effect on the relationship between shopping motivation and behavioral intentions or loyalty [34].

This study divides respondents into two age groups, teen group (15-24 years) and adult group (over 24 years). This study uses age group with a minimum of 15 years because the dividing line between the beginning of puberty is 13 years and late adolescence of 17 years old [39]. Also, the changes in cognitive development of adolescence, especially in decision-making, occurs at age 15 to 16 years old [40]. Distribution of this age group up to 24 years based on research of [34].

Several previous researches showed that age moderated the effect of retail attributes on utilitarian shopping motivation, hedonic shopping motivation, and customer loyalty [26]; [14]: [41]. While the research conducted by Westbrook and Black (1985) [42] and Jin and Kim (2003) [13] showed that age was not found moderating the effect of retail attribute on shopping motivation utilitarian, hedonic shopping motivation, and customer loyalty. This difference is expected due to the different culture of the study object. Based on the finding of the previous researches, the sixth hypothesis are formulated as follows:

Hypothesis 6: Age variables moderates the effect retail attributes on utilitarian shopping motivation, hedonic shopping motivation, and customer loyalty.

From six hypotheses, the research conceptual framework can be seen in the Figure 2 as follows:

Figure 2. Research Conceptual Framework.

3. Research Method

This research was conducted at the modern retail business in Malang, namely Mal Olympic Garden (MOG). MOG was chose as the research object because it is the most famous shopping center in Malang city, East Java (Indonesia). The population of the study was the customers of MOG where it’s number is unknown. The questionnaires were distributed privately through face to face interviews. The sampling design used non-probability based on ease (convenience sampling) with a total sample of 180 respondents. However, only 150 samples fullfil the criteria. According to Kuncoro (2009) [43], convenience sampling is the procedure to find the samples based on the researcher’s need. This technique was used because the representation of the sampling in this study is not necessary [44]. Furthermore, sample unit in this study was obtained in two creteria: (1) The samples should be over 15 years old and are in MOG when the questionnaires distributed; and (2) the samples are the customers who are shopping independently (decision makers in shopping activities). The duration of the data collection trough observations and questionnaires, was two months, begins in the early of October and ends in the last of November 2015. The data was processed and analysed using SPSS 20.0 and SmartPLS 2.0M3. This study used measurement scale of Likert 5 scales), starts from strongly disagree (1) untill strongly agree (5).

4. Results and Discussions

Characteristics of examined respondents included groups, sex, marital status, occupation, income per month, and the intensity of visits to MOG totaling 150 respondents. The characteristic of respondents is shown in the Table 1. Table 1 illustrates that customers who shop in MOG were mostly students under 20 years old (teen group). These results were consistent with the facts on the field that MOG visitors are teenagers or young people. As for the adult group, MOG customers were dominated by those whose age above 40 years. It indicated that MOG customers were from the age group with a maturity of thinking.

Considering from gender, it showed that the shopping activity was dominated by men. This condition indicated that the activity of shopping is no longer dominated by women. Based on marital status it indicated that the respondent group of teenagers which was involved in the study, the majority of respondents were unmarried and adult groups. The married respondents were 42 people (84%). Determining from the profession / occupation of respondents, it was found that the respondent group of teenagers involved in the majority of the research was the school/college students by 94 people (94%). While in the adult group, the majority worked as civil servants by 24 people (48%).

Table 1. Characteristic of Respondents.

Characteristics Total (%)
Teen Group Adult Group
Age (Years old)
- < 20 63 (63%) 0 (0%)
- 20 - 24 37 (37%) 0 (0%)
- 25 - 30 0 (0%) 9 (18%)
- 31 - 40 0 (0%) 15 (30%)
- > 40 0 (0%) 26 (52%)
Gender
- Male 54 (54%) 30 (60%)
- Female 46 (46%) 20 (40%)
Marital Status
- Unmarried 96 (96%) 6 (12%)
- Married 4 (4%) 42 (84%)
- Widowhood 0 (0%) 2 (4%)
Occupation
- Civil Servant 2 (2%) 24 (48%)
- Private Employee 2 (2%) 15 (30%)
- Housewife 0 (0%) 2 (4%)
- Entrepreneur 2 (2%) 9 (18%)
- School/College Student 94 (94%) 0 (0%)
Characteristics Total (%)
Teen Group Adult Group
Income
- ≤ Rp 1 million 51 (51%) 0 (0%)
- > Rp 1 - 3 million 45 (45%) 20 (40%)
- > Rp 3 million 4 (4%) 30 (60%)
Intensity
- 1 - 3 times 81 (81%) 40 (80%)
- 4 - 6 times 12 (12%) 6 (12%)
- 7 - 9 times 3 (3%) 4 (8%)
- ≥ 10 times 4 (4%) 0 (0%)
Main Purpose    
- Giant Hypermarket 18 (18%) 24 (48%)
- Fashion 40 (40%) 12 (24%)
- Informa Furniture 10 (10%) 6 (12%)
- Center Point 19 (19%) 12 (24%)
- Foodcourt 22 (22%) 8 (16%)
- Others 16 (16%) 8 (16%)

Determining from the average revenue per month of respondents, it indicated that there were differences in terms of revenue among respondent groups of teenagers and adults. This condition was in accordance with the group of respondents who dominated the group under 20 years old in the teen group and over 40 years old in the adult group. Based on the intensity of visits to MOG, it was found that the respondent group of teenagers by 81%, who was involved in the study, visited MOG 1-3 times per month.

Likewise, the majority of respondents in adult group by 80% visited MOG once to three times per month. This indicated that customers were loyal enough to shop at MOG. Such condition was coherent with respondents’ characteristics based on the occupation dominated by school/college students whose main activity is learning. Further, when observing from the main shopping destination to MOG, they were the fashion for teens and Giant Hypermarket group for adult groups, which indicated a difference in shopping motivation between groups of teenager and adult. It means that the group of teens was more motivated in appearance while the group of adult was more in meeting the household needs. Results of testing the coefficient of direct influence on each track for the teen and adult groups are presented in the Table 2.

Table 2. Testing Results on Inner Model Effect of Teen and Adult Groups.

Influence Path Coefficient of Direct Impact
Teen Group Adult Group
X (Retail Attribute) -> Y1 (Utilitarian Motivation) 0.374** -0.390*
X (Retail Attribute)-> Y2(Hedonic Shopping Motivation) 0.403** 0.400**
X (Retail Attribute) -> Y3 (Customer Loyalty) 0.599** 0.769**
Y1(Utilitarian Motivation) ->Y3(Customer Loyalty) -0.013ts 0.219*
Y2(Hedonic Shopping Motivation) ->Y3 (Customer Loyalty) 0.198* 0.196ts

Notes:

**: Significant at the 5% of error level

*: Significant at 10% of error level

Furthermore, the results of hypothesis testing on the path diagram can be seen in the Figure 3 as follows:

Figure 3. Path Diagram of Hypothesis Testing Results.

For the teen group, the influence path between retail attributes (X) and utilitarian shopping motivation (Y1) indicates that the variable of retail attributes (X) had a positive effect and significant on utilitarian shopping motivation. This indicates that a better quality of retail attributes result in higher increase of impact on utilitarian shopping motivation. The influence path of retail attributes (X) on hedonic shopping motivation (Y2) shows that retail attributes (X) had a positive effect and significant on hedonic shopping motivation. This implies that a better quality of retail attributes result in higher increase of impact on hedonic shopping motivation. The influence path of retail attributes (X), utilitarian shopping motivation (Y1) and hedonic shopping motivation (Y3) on customer loyalty (Y3) shows that retail attributes (X) had a positive effect and significant on customer loyalty (Y3). This means that a better retail attributes will result in the increase of customer loyalty. The influence path of utilitarian shopping motivation (Y1) on customer loyalty (Y3) indicates that utilitarian shopping motivation (Y1) had a negative effect but not significant on customer loyalty (Y3). The influence path of hedonic shopping motivation (Y2) on customer loyalty (Y3) shows that hedonic shopping motivation (Y2) had a positive effect and significant on customer loyalty (Y3). This indicates that a better hedonic shopping motivation will result in the increase of customer loyalty. Therefore, in the teen group all hypotheses are accepted except hypothesis 4.

For the adult group, the influence path of retail attributes (X) on utilitarian shopping motivation (Y1) shows that the retail attributes (X) provides a significant and negative effect on utilitarian shopping motivation. This means that a better quality of retail attributes will decrease the utilitarian shopping motivation. The influence path of retail attributes (X) on hedonic shopping motivation (Y2) shows that the retail attributes (X) had a positive and significant effect on hedonic shopping motivation (Y2). This indicates that a better quality of retail attribute will increase hedonic shopping motivation. Influence path of retail attributes (X), utilitarian shopping motivation (Y1) and hedonic shopping motivation (Y3) on customer loyalty (Y3) shows that the retail attributes (X) had a positive and significant effect on customer loyalty (Y3). This illustrates that a better retail attribute result in the increase of customer loyalty. The influence path of utilitarian shopping motivation (Y1) on customer loyalty (Y3) indicates that the utilitarian shopping motivation (Y1) provides a positive and significant effect on customer loyalty (Y3). This suggests that a better utilitarian shopping motivation will result in the increase of customer loyalty. The influence path of hedonic shopping motivation (Y2) on customer loyalty (Y3), indicates that hedonic shopping motivation (Y2) had a positive effect but not significant on customer loyalty (Y3). Table 3 indicates that comparing the effect of retail attribute (X) on utilitarian shopping motivation (Y1) obtained p-value less than 0.05. To sum up, in the teen group all hypotheses are accepted except hypothesis 5.

Those results indicate that there were significant differences of the retail attribute effect on utilitarian shopping motivation between teen and adult groups. As shown by the analysis results of the coefficient in retail attribute effect on utilitarian shopping motivation, the teen group was 0374, while the adult group was -0390. In the teen group, the retail attribute has a positive effect on utilitarian shopping motivation, while in the adult group the retail attribute has a negative effect on utilitarian shopping motivation. All analysis results of the influence path for both teen and adult groups are shown in the Table 3 as follows:

Table 3. Comparison of Influence Path between Teen and Adult Groups.

Path Influence Coefficient of Direct Influence t-Statistic p-value
Teen Adult
X (Retail Attribute) -> Y1 (Utlitarian Motivation) 0.374 -0.390 3.697 0.000**
X (Retail Attribute) -> Y2 (Hedonic Shopping Motivation) 0.403 0.400 0.027 0.979ts
X (Retail Attribute) -> Y3 (Loyalitas Pelanggan) 0.599 0.769 -1.021 0.309ts
Y1 (Utlitarian Motivation) -> Y3 (Customer Loyalty) -0.013 0.219 -1.441 0.152ts
Y2 (Hedonic Shopping Motivation) -> Y3 (Customer Loyalty) 0.198 0.196 0.010 0.992ts

Note: **Significant at the 5% of error level; * Significant at 10% of error level

The analysis results show that the age variable only moderates the relationship between retail attributes and utilitarian shopping motivation. Stimuli Organism Response (S-O-R) development model by Mehrabian-Russell (1974) [2] based on this study is presented in the Figure 4 (Adapted from [18]):

Figure 4. SOR Model Development of Russel-Meharabian.

SOR Model of Mehrabian-Russel (1974) [2] had been developed from the result of this study and it could explain that environmental stimuli affected a person's emotions which would get a response in the form of either approach-avoidance behavior. Approach behavior is the behavior toward various environmental stimuli and emotional state of a person. Avoidance behavior is a behavior of getting away from environmental stimuli and emotional state of a person. Emotional state and social responses to environmental stimuli depend on the age factor.

5. Conclusion and Recommendation

Based on the research result, it can be concluded that better quality of product variety, product value, physical aspects, personal interaction, and accessibility owned by MOG will have an impact on the increase of utilitarian shopping motivation, hedonic shopping motivation and customer loyalty. However, the utilitarian shopping motivation itsel cannot directly increase customer loyalty. The hedonic shopping motivation positively contributes to the customer loyalty. Increasing the hedonic shopping motivation will result in the increase of customer loyalty. The age variable can only moderate the effect of retail attribute on the utilitarian shopping motivation. In the teen group, retail attributes provide positive effect on the utilitarian shopping motivation. However, in the adult group, the retail attributes have negative effect on the utilitarian shopping motivation. Meanwhile, in the teen group, the utilitarian shopping motivation has a negative impact on customer loyalty. While, in the adult group, the utilitarian shopping motivation has a positive effect on customer loyalty.

This research is a study of consumer behavior conducted in three perspectives. First, it is a decision-making perspective related to utilitarian shopping motivations. Second, it is the perspective of experience associated with hedonic shopping motivations. Third, it is the perspective of behavioral effects related to environmental factors. This study provides theorical implication on the correction of the S-O-R from Mehrabian - Russel by including age variable as the moderating variable which connects the retail attribute variable as the stimuli variable through shopping motivations (utilitarian and hedonic), and customer loyalty as the response variable. The study also contibutes to the previous research by adding age as a moderating varible. Practically, the study brings some idea that the retail management should develop segmentation, customization and innovation of retail attributes as an important strategy to overcome the differences in store attribute effects on the values of shopping and customer loyalty. Technically, the retail management is recommended to regularly evaluate and innovate the physical aspects of the retail layout, product layout, well management on arranging aroma, temperature, and noise in the room, fullfil the standard of comfort, provide deposit box, and provide large parking area.

For the future research, it is necessary to broaden the scope of the research by comparing two or more shopping places. Also, longitudinal study is crucial to be conducted, as this study only used cross section data. By considering those two suggestion for future research, the result of the future studies will be more comprehensive in regard to the relationship among variables used in this study.

Acknowledgement

Many thanks to Dr. Sirajuddin Omsa, senior lecturer in Accounting Department, State Polytechnic of Ujung Pandang (Indonesia) who has assisted me to write this scientific article and submitted it to the Science Journal of Business Management (SJBM). I do hope Mr. Omsa still availabe in assisting me to write my future articles.


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