Science Journal of Business and Management
Volume 3, Issue 5-1, September 2015, Pages: 1-6

Consumption Pattern and Demand Analysis of Dacryodes edulis in Umuahia Metropolis of Abia State

Adenegan K.1, Olowoyo F. B.2, Ajewole O. I.1, Koyejo O. A.2, Okelola O. E.3

1Faculty of Agriculture/forestry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2EasternResearch Station, Extension Programme Unit, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN), Ibadan Nigeria

3Department of Agricultural Extension & Management, Federal College of Agriculture, Ishiagu, Nigeria

Email address:

(Olowoyo F. B.)

To cite this article:

Adenegan K., Olowoyo F. B., Ajewole O. I., Koyejo O. A., Okelola O. E.. Consumption Pattern and Demand Analysis of Dacryodes edulis in Umuahia Metropolis of Abia State. Science Journal of Business and Management. Special Issue: Sustainable Entrepreneurial Developments in Agribusiness. Vol. 3, No. 5-1, 2015, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.11648/j.sjbm.s.2015030501.11


Abstract: Consumption pattern and demand analysis of Dacryodes edulis commonly called ube by the Igbos in Umuahia, Nigeria was studied. The various uses and reasons for consumption of Dacryodes edulis, socio- economic characteristics of respondents, income elasticity, and chi square to determine the relationship between Consumption of Dacryodes edulis and some variables that affect it, are addressed. Simple random sampling was adopted. A well-structured questionnaire were used for Dacryodes edulis consumers at the household in two selected local government areas in Umuahia. A total of (160) one hundred and sixty questionnaires were administered, on a total of eight (8) villages in the city of Umuahia. Data obtained were subjected to simple descriptive statistics, which shows that almost all the respondents (92.0%) consume Dacryodes edulis and they got to know of Dacryodes edulis through family and friends due to its high medicinal value as claimed by 91.3% of the respondents. The income elasticity of Dacryodes edulis demand is 13%. The income elasticity is significant at 5% with coefficient of 0.13, this means that a percent increase in income leads to a 13% of change in Dacryodes edulis consumption.

Keywords: Dacryodes Edulis, Demand, Consumption Pattern, Elasticity, Respondents


1. Introduction

Edible non-wood forest products are indispensable to rural people for regular or supplementary food supply and as a source of revenue generation.  Farmers and forest dwelling people possess a great deal of indigenous knowledge arising from the utilization of non-wood forest products (NWFPS) and agricultural crops (Okafor, 1983). Multipurpose trees and shrubs (MPTS) have multipurpose functions and provide fuel woods, poles, timber, fruits, gums nuts, fiber, medicine etc. for the indigenous people (Anonymous (2010).

Plants are primary sources of medicines, fiber, food, shelter and other items of everyday use by humans. The roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruit and seeds provide food for animals and human beings (Hemingway, 2004,). Plants serve as indispensable constituents of human diet supplying the body with mineral salts, vitamins and certain hormone precursors in addition to protein and energy (Oyenuga and Fetuga, 1975). Seeds have nutritive and calorific values which make them necessary in diets (Odoemelam, 2005; Olowoyo 2012). The fruit called ube by the Igbo’s or Elemi in Yoruba are economically and medicinally important (Okafor, 1987; Okigbo, 1977).  Dacryodes edulis is a traditional food plant in Africa, this fruit has potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development and support sustainable land care. The main use of dacryodes edulis is the consumption of its fruit by the people of Umuahia metropolis in Abia State. The fruit can be eaten raw, cooked in salt water or roasted. Cooked flesh of the fruit has a texture similar to butter. The plantation can produce 7 – 8 tons of oil per hectare and pulp contains 48% oil. It is also rich in vitamins. In Umuahia, the kernel is being used as fodder for sheep or goats and the flowers are useful in agriculture, NRC (2008).

Consumption is an act of buying and making use of what you buy as quickly as possible before purchasing another one. According to Robinson (1972), demand is the functional relationship between the price of a given commodity and the quantity of that commodity that will be sold in a market specified as to time and place. Also according to Jhingan (2002), demand in its ordinary meaning means desire but it becomes effective when income is spent in buying consumption and investment goods. The essence of the study of demand in economics is to describe the behaviour of consumers. Adegeye and Dittoh (1985), defined demand as a schedule which shows the various amount of a product which consumers are willing to buy and able to purchase at every specific price in a series of time. Demand is classified into individual and market demand. Individual demand is the schedule which shows the various amount of a product which a consumer is willing and able to buy within a particular period of time in a series of possible prices, while a market demand schedule in a particular market can be accomplished by summing the quantities demanded by each consumer at the various possible prices to give the total demand schedule in a particular market (McConnell 1990).

Koutsoyiannis (1979) also defined the market demand for a given commodity as the horizontal summation of the individual consumers. Demand is a multivariate relationship, that is, it is determined by many variables simultaneously. Basically the most important determinants of the market demand are considered to be the prices of the commodity in question, the price of other commodities, consumers’ income, number of consumers in the market, consumers’ expectation with respect to future prices and income. Keynes in is "General Theory" postulated that aggregate consumption is a function of aggregate disposable income. The relation between consumption and income is based on his psychological law of consumption which states that when income increases, consumption expenditure also increases but by a smaller amount. In other words, the consumption expenditure increases (or decreases) with increase (or decrease) in income but non-proportionally.

The objective of this study is to determine the factors responsible for the consumption of D. edulis and also to determine the pattern of consumption and the various uses and reasons for consumption of Dacryodes edulis.

2. Methodology

The study was carried out in eight villages in Umuahia, Abia State. The city is located on the eastern part of Nigeria and lies between latitude 5°N and 7°N of the equator, longitude 7°E and 9°E Greenwich meridian. It comprises of two Local Government Areas (Umuahia North and South) with a total population of approximately 359, 230 (NPC, 2006).

A simple random sampling was used in selecting 160 respondents with just 150 valid for analysis during data collection. The data were collected with well-structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentages were used to analyze the data. In addition, chi square analysis was done to determine the relationship between consumption of Dacryodes edulis and some variables that affect it.

3. Results and Discussion

A total of 160 questionnaires were used for this study; but 150 were recovered, from the two local governments. The result of socioeconomic characteristics of respondents is presented in Table 1.  Of all the respondents 53.3% are male and 46.7% are female. Approximately 29.3% of them were between ages 36 and 45 years, while 26.7% were between 46 years and above. About 36.0% of the respondents claimed to have primary education and 34% have secondary education. Almost 65.3% of the consuming respondents are married from major Igbo tribe. Also, from table 1, 28.7% and 18.7% of the respondents claimed to be farmers and traders by profession, while 24% are artisan. Almost 96% of the respondents are fully engaged in their profession of family trading while 1.3 are not. Almost, 47.3% of the respondents have between 0 and 4 household family size while 32% have about 5-8 family size.

Also, 96.0% agrees that Dacryodes edulis is available in the market all the time, which means it is easily gotten nearby so the consumption is possibly high. It was found out that both wet season and dry season affect the availability of Dacryodes edulis while 76.0% of the respondents agrees to these. About 54% of the respondents are still willing to buy their usual quantity weekly even at scarce season.

Table 1. Socio economic characteristics of Respondents.

Characteristics Indicators or operationalization Frequency Percentage %
Gender Male 80 53.3
  Female 70 46.7
  Total 150 100.0
Age 15 -25 30 20.0
  26 – 35 35 23.3
  36 – 45 44 29.3
  46 & above 40 26.7
  Total 149 99.3
  Missing system 1 7
  Total 150 100.0
Educational Qualification No formal education 30 20.0
  Primary education 54 36.0
  Secondary education 51 34.0
  OND/NCE 8 5.3
  Graduate 7 4.7
  Total 150 100.0
Marital Status Single 32 21.3
  Married 98 65.3
  Widowed 19 12.7
  Single parent 1 7
  Total 150 100.0
Tribe Igbo 148 98.7
  Missing system 2 1.3
  Total 150 100.0
Profession Medical 2 1.3
  Solicitor 3 2.0
  Teacher 14 9.3
  Farmer 43 28.7
  Trader 28 18.7
  Driver 20 13.3
  Artisan 36 24.0
  Total 146 97.3
  Missing system 4 2.7
  Total 150 100.0
Household size 0 – 4 71 47.3
  5 – 8 48 32.0
  9 above 27 18.0
  Total 146 97.3
  Missing system 4 2.7
  Total 150 100.0
If yes what is your average annual income 0 -1 million 134 89.3
  1 – 2million 7 4.7
  2 – 4million 1 .7
  4 – 6million 3 2.0
  Total 145 96.7
  Missing system 5 3.3
  Total 150 100.0
If no what is your other source of income Farming 142 94.7
  Trading 4 2.7
  Total 146 97.3
  Missing system 4 2.7
  Total 150 100.0
Did you have other source Yes 13 8.7
  No 133 88.7
  Total 146 97.3
  Missing system 4 2.7
  Total 150 100.0
If you have list them Farming 138 92.0
  Trading 7 4.7
  Artisan 1 .7
  Total 146 97.3
  Missing system 4 2.7
  Total 150 100.0
Is Ube available in the market all the time Yes 144 96.0
  No 2 1.3
  Total 146 97.3
  Missing system 4 2.7
  Total 150 100.0
Which season affect the availability of Ube Wet season 20 13.3
  Dry season 7 4.7
  Beth 114 76.0
  Total 146 97.3
  Missing system 4 2.7
  Total 150 100.0
At scarce season are you still willing to buy your usual quantity? Yes 81 54.0
  No 65 43.3
  Total 146 97.3
  Missing system 4 97.3
  Total 150 100.0

Source: Field Survey, 2010.

In table 2, almost all the respondents (92.0%) eat Dacryodes edulis because of its medicinal value, this finding concurs with the study by Iduma and Tolawo (2009) where it was reported that all respondents eat because of its medicinal value. A large number of people (79.3%) spend about N150.00 weekly on Ube. Most respondents (77.3%) claimed to know Ube through friends and family, and 85.3% of the respondents enjoy the fruit being roasted. At each purchase, 44.7% of respondents bought 15 pieces of Ube.

Table 2. Consumption Pattern of Dacryodes edulis by the Respondents.

Did you eat the fruit Yes 138 92.0
  No 11 7.3
  Total 149 99.3
  Missing system 1 7
  Total 150 100.0
Reasons for consuming Ube Cheapness 10 6.7
  Sweetness 3 2.0
  Medicinal value 137 91.3
  Total 150 100.0
How did you get to know Ube Thru friends & family 116 77.3
  Personal likeness/choice 33 22.0
  Thru. Medical practice 1 7
  Total 150 100.0
How best did you enjoy this fruit Per boil 2 1.3
  Roasted 128 85.3
  With maize or yam 15 10.0
  All of the above 5 3.3
  Total 150 100.0
How often do you buy this fruit Daily 6 4.0
  Weekly 119 79.3
  Often 8 5.3
  Seldom 14 9.3
  Total 147 98.0
  Missing system 3 2.0
  Total 150 100.0
What is the price of your purchase each time N20 -50 22 14.7
  N60 -100 15 10.0
  N100 – 200 79 52.7
  N210 – 300 31 20.7
  Total 147 98.0
  Missing system 3 2.0
  Total 150 100.0
Quantity purchased at each buying 3 pieces 31 20.7
  6 pieces 1 7
  10 pieces 13 8.7
  15 pieces 67 44.7
  20 pieces 34 22.7
  Total 146 97.3
  Missing system 4 2.7
  Total 150 100.0
Willingness to buy more Ube Fruit Yes 149 99.3
  Missing system 1 7
  Total 150 100.0
With price increase are you still willing to buy your usual quantity Yes 149 99.3
  Missing system 1 7
  Total 150 100.0
If the price goes down are you willing to buy more Yes 130 86.7
  No 20 13.3
  Total 150 100.0
Number in the household that consume Ube All 142 94.7
  Some 8 5.3
  Total 150 100.0
Source of Ube Farm field 6 4.0
  Market 143 95.3
S Own garden 1 7
  Total 150 100.0
Commercial Importance of Ube Potential to increase nutrition 149 99.3
  It boost food security 1 7
  Total 150 100.0

Source: Field Survey, 2010.

Almost all the respondents (99.3%) are willing to buy more Dacryodes edulis fruit, even if there is a price increase they still agree to buy their usual quantity. About 95% of the entire household consume Ube which has market as its source. The major commercial importance of Dacryodes edulis is the potential to increase nutrition (99.3%). i.e. for balance diet. The consumption pattern and demand analysis study confirms and builds on previous studies (Ndoye et al., 1997; Tabuna, 2000),

Table 3 shows the cross-tabulation analysis result of consumption of Ube and socioeconomic variables. It can be discovered that consumption of Ube depends on the source of Ube, number in the household that consume the fruit, (P< 0.05). The result therefore implies that increase in the price of Ube will leads to decrease in the quantity demanded, which is the expected situation in any purchase of goods and services. On the other hand, consumption of Ube does not have any correlation with variables such as gender, age (P >0.05)

Table 3. Effect of Selected Variables on Consumption of Dacryodes edulis.

  Chi-Square P-Level  
Which season affect the availability of Ube 31.699 0.000 Significant
At scarce season are you still willing to buy your usual quantity? 5.930 0.015 Ns
Consumption Motive 134.482 0.000 Significant
Awareness 41.749 0.000 Significant
How best did you enjoy this fruit 0.614 0.893 Ns
Frequency of Purchase 43.283 0.000 Significant
What is the price of your purchase each time? 2.790 0.425 Ns
Source of Dacryodes edulis 43.772 0.000 Significant
Willing to buy more Ube fruit– this is a constant.      
If the price of Ube increase pieces are you still willing to buy your usual quantity      
If the price goes down are you willing to buy more Ube? 37.561 0.000 Significant
Source of Ube 32.170 0.000 Significant
Commercial importance of Ube 0.080 0.777 Ns

Income elasticity

The income elasticity of Ube demand is 13%.  Income elasticity is significant at 5% with coefficient of 0.13, this means that a percent increase in income leads to a 13% change in Ube consumption. Expenditure elasticity is significant at 5% with a negative coefficient of 0.07, this means that a percentage increase in price of Dacryodes edulis leads to a 7% decrease in its consumption.

The possible reasons for the pasture of the results are distributing of earners. From table 1 it shows that 89.3% of the respondents have 0 – 1million naira as their average annual income. So Dacryodes edulis in this sense is considered as a luxury which is consumed only when they have money.

4. Conclusion

The study provides evidence of a thriving domestic market for Dacryodes edulis in Umuahia as well as valuable Nigeria import market. The result showed that the quantity purchased and price quantity of purchase of Dacryodes edulis each time is positively related to the demand for D. edulis by household. It was also discovered that people consume the fruit majorly because of its medicinal value. A percent increase in income leads to a 13% change in Dacryodes edulis consumption. The price of Dacryodes edulis varies with the characteristics desired by the market. The key constraint to Dacryodes edulis is perishability and overcoming would help to increase both the domestic and international market. Perishability makes marketing intensity more certain and places a premium on good infrastructure (including cold storage chains for high value marketers) and market information priority should therefore be given to research into storage and processing methods for Dacryodes edulis. All these enhance consumption. The fruit would however have to meet the expectations of current consumers and the requirements of raw outlets, such as generated large – scale supplies frozen fruit and Dacryodes edulis paste may be possible innovations. It is also recommended that Forestry Research Institute Nigeria should perfect more research on the propagation and mass production of this specie to reduce importation from the neighbouring countries.


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