The Participation of Women in Politics Has Become Major Challenge for Gender Equality in Albania After the "90 of the Twentieth Century
Faculty of Political Science and Law, Department of Political Science, University "Aleksander Mosiu" Durres, Durres, Albania
To cite this article:
Manjola Xhaferri. The Participation of Women in Politics Has Become Major Challenge for Gender Equality in Albania After the "90 of the Twentieth Century. Social Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 4, 2015, pp. 82-85. doi: 10.11648/j.ss.20150404.12
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to expose the importance of women's participation and Albanian women in the political sphere. The paper is focused specifically in the role played by women in political life and how are they involved in this sector. Policy has been a totally male field, where political positions are held by men, even in the most part, only those running for such positions. Girls and women are considered as "very fragile, clean and too naive to be tainted by dirty politics". The role of Albanian girls and women in politics is more supportive for a male candidate whom she has relatives. Girls and women leaders have attacked many social opinions. Even successful girls and women seem to prey on agency rumors. More importantly girls and women are more attacked, slandered more, and more prejudiced. Mentality and opinion tends not to attribute its success to their abilities, but always seek to find what they say behind this success. It looks like the girls and women who are able to get ahead are vıewed by social tsunami survivor, always viewed with a skeptical eye type, which fails to recognize that women are just as capable as the men. When girls and women emerge d from their traditional positions they became the center of attention to be attacked by others.
Keywords: Politics, Challenge, Equality, Gender, Albania
The study aims to present the current situation of the status and role of women and girls in society, through collection and analysis of quantitative and qualitative data. The main objective is research and opinions prejudicial disparaging mentality for girls and women in Albania in connection with their participation in politics, especially after the 90s, as an important step towards gender equality, and participate in equal proportion to represent.
For the realization of this study was a survey, which aimed to gleanings reasons, therefore, mentalities and opinions of women and men in the cities of Tirana, Durres, Kruje, Permet, Shkoder, Elbasan on the issue of women participation in political life as a major challenge for gender equality in Albania. The survey included 300 individuals aged 18 years and above. The sample was selected based on an equal distribution of gender, surveyed 150 female and 150 male. For the selection of the sample included in the study, the main criterion used was that respondents should have been over 18 years, and that distribution in both sexes were equal (150 female and 150 male). Given that the study includes several cities in Albania, random selection of respondents is done considering that respondents represented in this study were of different professions and with different education levels. Thus, the examination of the data collected, the composition of the sample results as follows: (Table 1)
|Employs a total of||90||110||200|
|Employees in the state||50||75||125|
|Private employees in||40||35||75|
|18 - 25 years||42||45||87|
|26 - 35 years||40||40||80|
|36 - 45 years||30||40||70|
|46 - 60 years||35||23||58|
|61 years and over||3||2||5|
Referring to the topic of study, we can not talk about women's participation in politics in order to distract, without talking about the participation of women in economic, social, without talking about violence against women, etc. At the same time, there can be a successful treatment of women's problems, such as an extract of government programs, but as part of these programs. Because of patriarchal mentalities apparently still continues, not only to people but also to political representatives, many women and girls do not know their rights, and disregard the fact that they possess the potential to be not only policy but further development of this nation (Dervishi 2001).
It is therefore important that at the same time to talk about the participation of women in politics, as a condition for democracy, but at the same time to work even more awareness of women's rights, their potentials and skills . Not surprisingly, there is the saying that: "whether to assess a country's democracy, the progress of a country and the emancipation of a society, and see as to what position to place on women". In Albania the policy remains dominated by men. The involvement of women in politics today is not the appropriate levels, in those levels that we claim ourselves. It is not very nice to be recognized, but today the laws that operate on the woman also in the best possible men are laws. Often in the middle of the programs and projects in Albania, non-profit organizations, both domestic and foreign, is the involvement of women in politics. The most significant example was the June 2009 parliamentary elections, where women have benefited from 16.4% of parliamentary seats, or 23 seats(INSTAT 2004). This question is 30% -it far contemplated. Well the policy are still many things to achieve and change.
Referring to the study conducted, below will be presented several graphs that show how the respondents answered the questions raised about the establishment of gender equality, women's representation in political life. Of the respondents understood that times are changing and more and more girls and women are trying to break the ice to participation in political life. When asked how they felt themselves engaged in politics, as men and women mainly in most of the cities included in the study, they seem to generally feel somewhat excluded from it. In the first chart is presented the question of how they feel engaged in politics.
a. Treats question how committed you feel yourself in politics?
From the results it appears that about 30.5% of female respondents and about 23.5% of men say they do not feel involved in politics at all. It's very low percentage of respondents who said they feel more engaged in politics, or 1.5% of female respondents and 8% of men.
They engage in politics generally a limited number of people, those who ride and down from different positions. It seems that ordinary people are not very interested in politics.
Another question addressed respondents is; Do you see politics as a field of men? From the data obtained from the survey shows that about 45% of respondents are not at all agree that politics is a field that belongs to men, or 28.5% of women and 16.5% of men surveyed think so.
On the other hand, 14.5% of men surveyed think that politics is the field for males versus 6.5% of women.
b. Treats question whether the policy is an activity that belongs only to men?
From the data presented noticed that men, more than women to think the political sphere as an activity for men and not for women.
Policy generally engaged men, they run for various political positions, we are accustomed to terms premier, MP, mayor, etc.
This lack of image of girls and women in politics has created a kind of political culture where girls and women are not included.
In various cities in Albania girls and women seem not interested in politics because their participation is negligible, and nearly impossible mainly in small cities as Kruje, Gjirokastra, Permeti etc.
c. Treats question whether girls and women are not capable of dealing with politics?
In a patriarchal society elements, where men have monopolized all areas of social and political life, where senior positions are held by men, institutions, and where girls and women are invisible seems quite natural that the participation of girls and women in politics to be low. Why politics is seen as men's activities? Does girls and women are incapable? When asked about this, the survey shows that the majority of respondents, 55% of them say they are not at all agree with the statement that women are not capable of dealing with politics. About 30% of female respondents and 25% of men say they are not at all agree with this assertion. While only 15% of respondents agree, of which 9.5% are males and 5.5% females. As girls and women are considered able to deal with politics, at least so he thinks the 50% of respondents, this low turnout did not come from their lack of interest in politics?
d. Handles the question of whether girls and women are not interested in politics?
The survey shows that the majority of respondents, about 33.5% of them think that girls and women are not interested in politics compared to 17% of respondents who think the opposite. As shown in Chart 4, are men (21.55¬) who make up the majority of respondents who think girls and women as policy painteresura. This may be a result of the impact of freak and patriarchal mentality, politics is not for girls and women, they do not have how to be interested in something that is not for them. However, the percentage of women who say that are too agree that girls and women are not interested in politics is significant (12.5%).
Unless men and women are infected by patriarchal mentality that defines their positions. On the other hand, political activity and those who commit the most positive naked eye by the people, especially of girls and women. "In politics played dirty deals and bargains ugly women do not have the stain itself becoming part of the choir corrupt" - so says one interview who once dealt with politics.
e. Treats question whether girls and women involved in politics, are those who have husbands, fathers, brothers engaged in politics?
The survey shows that very high percentage of respondents who agree that girls dealing with politics are those who have a male person in their family who deals with politics. Thus, about 39.5% of respondents totally agree and a significant percentage, 37% of respondents are somewhat agree.
f. Treats political question of whether your beliefs are the same or different?
On the other hand, a significant proportion of the respondents, 37.5% said they agree that girls have the same political persuasion as the fathers and women as spouses of theirs, 29% of respondents said they were somewhat agree, 9.5% of respondents stated that they are not agreed.
If you look at the chart below we will see that it is not just the opinion of respondents, but in fact even asked respondents for their political beliefs turns out that 52% of them have the same political beliefs with their spouses and 25% of them have the same political persuasion as the father. Even those girls and women who may be involved in politics behind the shadow of her father, husband, brother or other relative. I think that their role is symbolic, simple role of sympathizer and supporters of a candidate, who in this case is their relative. Their participation in politics is not chosen by themselves, there are those who run, but they should commit to support and assist in the victory of father, husband, or whoever their relative dealing with politics.
g. Treats Question girls have the same political persuasion as their fathers, while women like their husbands?
As respondents said they generally had the same political persuasion fathers and husbands, the question how their opinion coincides with the assertion: Girls have the same political persuasion as their fathers and women as their spouses, makes the same result. About 37.5% of respondents stated that their views coincide more with the above statement, 24% of them are men. It seems that more men than for women is more difficult to accept that the political convictions of girls and women may be different from theirs.
For it is hard to think that girls and women may think otherwise they, and for them it is hard to believe that girls and women can think for themselves and act independently. Had it not enough that girls and women tend to have political convictions subject to like fathers or their husbands, for respondents, girls and women vote for that candidate dictates you head. The survey shows that 29% of respondents said they are very agree with the assertion that girls and women vote for the candidate and the party that dictates head, and 30.5% said they were somewhat agree.
Girls and women have and should be subject to like political persuasion as fathers and husbands; they are not interested in politics; considered fit to deal with politics, but not engaging; those little girls and women engaged in their political participation dedicate male relatives; politics viewed not only as a field of men and the think most female respondents; They should vote for that candidate and party to dictate;
h. Treats question whether girls and women vote for that party and candidate who says head?
All these point to the complicated relationship and unable to girls and women in politics. It seems as if women and policies are made and are not made to stay together, they can and can not, want and do not want a conflict and the unresolved situation that left women and girls suspended its participation in politics. I think that the Albanian patriarchal mentality as a whole is the cause of this situation. Girls and women are able to deal with politics, but like many other areas the policy is monopolized by men, they can not allow girls and women to enter their territory, and to make that they use, so to speak, their faithful supporter, patriarchal mentality. Politics is a "forbidden area" for girls and women, and men also ensure that girls and women to believe this.
Politics involved in areas of public life where women feel more excluded than men. I can say that politics is like a antraktid, cold and distant, but not unattainable. This results show that today women have become successful in many spheres of life has never been easy, but the fact is that they are do succeed. Women who currently handle political today, they have difficulties in their work, because often been called '' the men spokesperson ,, .. Claw be fear of challenge, or not being more selfish in a patriarchal society?
However say that women may be more, supporting each other, only so we can be more, so only made on the problems of women, just so they will find solutions to problems that weigh as motherhood, housewife, or an employee in the state, private or full time or part time. Therefore all women motto should be: Supporting women with the capacity and potential to have more access to decision-making. And do not ask how this largesse, but deserve. The presence of a powerful political movement can bring about a change in the growth of women's representation in decision-making. Perhaps it may seem too late to change the situation for the local elections which will be within this year. Perhaps in the next parliamentary elections should have more women representation in Europea.
All women's organizations, politics and civil society can work and coordinate their efforts and exert pressure on the government and political parties in the implementation of commitments made in national and international level.
We say this because of the fact that political parties are '' Griffin ,,, that can keep women out of the political process, it is essential that the party regulations and decision-making procedures be transparent. Too often, decisions on leadership positions in the party, or the position of the candidates in the list, done informally behind closed doors of the men who traditionally hold a monopoly of force(Davidson, and Cooper 1984).
A previous study in Bangladesh showed that one of the biggest obstacles to women's political participation was' 'lack of support from male politicians ,, and' lack of support from political parties themselves ,,. Women are less likely have access to these traditional power base. Therefore as democratic and transparent as are the operations of political parties, the more access will have women members in decision making. When we talk about increasing the representation of women in decision-making, we must consider and model of women to be represented in these institutions. These women should be active in politics and influence in their parties to implement gender policies, be willing to listen to the problems of women and protect their interests, have managerial and leadership skills to influence and inspire others, to preserve their identity and be respected by the community. I think that having these qualities will be imposed on women themselves political parties to be involved in decision making. A major contribution to women's political establishment has granted the National Democratic Institute, which is involved in various training programs significantly income women from different political parties, civil society and media. Assist by these women in NDI programs, such as' 'The development of young leaders in politics ,, and' Women in advocacy ,, led to a major lobbying campaign by women on issues of concern to not only the community , but the policy itself. On the initiative of these women in October 2008 it was established network of women '' Equality in decision-making ,, as a non-politics, non-profit, non-governmental, active network of women from political parties, civil society and media. The activity of this network is as in the political, social, and in it. This network aims to promote the values of women for a greater participation in decision making. Objective is to achieve 30% representation of women actually local government elections as well as the extension of the network in all districts.
3. Recommendations and Conclusions
1. Given that men and women have the same abilities to judge and act, choose the two shall have the same courage to set goals and overcome borders, are almost the same, why not have the same place and in politics!
2. Women should be sensitized to support each other to have more access to decision-making!
3. Women must have a greater support from male politicians!
4. Develop policies with equal participation by both men and women about the well-being of both parties, without putting logotype male-female!
5. Women should demand equal representation in their participation in politics as a marker with the capacity and capability that the same, just like men!
Although formally the respondents on the one hand, as individuals, generally expressed positive thoughts and liberal about gender equality and participation of women at large in politics, reality shows many fanatical action and suffocating for girls and women. It seems as if the justification that Albanians in general use for closure of girls and women within the walls of the house using as reasons fanaticism, mindset or opinion of others that prejudice or vilify it suspicious. The question arises: Who are these "others"? If I, you, he, and it think that girls and women are capable, to be taken on policy, which should have equal rights, then who are they that prejudice, who are those who vilify us? It seems as if the public and the old mentality is still the ruling power over the body of individuals. Anyway, I like to think of this duality between thought and action as the first uprising of the Albanian society as a whole, compared to the old mentality, although girls and women who generally have more pronounced this duality, but we must not forget that women educating the new generation.