Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Science
Volume 5, Issue 5, October 2016, Pages: 73-77

Chemical Analysis of Drinking Water Samples of Some Primary Schools from Magura District, Bangladesh

Md. Aminur Rahman1, Kamrun Nahar2, Sharif Md. Al-Reza2, *

1Department of Public Health Engineering, Zonal Laboratory, Khulna, Bangladesh

2Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh

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(S. M. Al-Reza)

*Corresponding author

To cite this article:

Md. Aminur Rahman, Kamrun Nahar, Sharif Md. Al-Reza. Chemical Analysis of Drinking Water Samples of Some Primary Schools from Magura District, Bangladesh.Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Science. Vol. 5, No. 5, 2016, pp. 73-77. doi: 10.11648/j.wros.20160505.12

Received: August 6, 2016; Accepted: September 12, 2016; Published: October 10, 2016


Abstract: In order to ascertain water quality for human consumption, major and minor ions were evaluated in the drinking water supplied to the primary school students of Magura district in Bangladesh. Standard methods were used for determining physical and chemical characteristics of the water samples. Arsenic (As), Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn) contents of the drinking water samples were also analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The data showed the variation of the investigated parameter in water samples as follows: pH 7.29 to 8.93, Electrical Conductivity (EC) 343 to 3000 µS/cm, chloride 10 to 725 mg/l, hardness 130 to 790 mg/l as CaCO3, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) 178 to 1530 mg/l, As Below the Detection Limit (BDL) to 0.012 mg/l, Fe 0.03 to 3.79 mg/l and Mn 0.03 to 0.66 mg/l. The concentrations of testing parameter in the drinking water samples were not permit all the sources of the World Health Organization (WHO) and Bangladesh Drinking Standards (BDS) water quality guideline values.

Keywords: Drinking Water, Primary School Students, AAS, Metal Ions, Water Quality


1. Introduction

From time immemorial, water assessment has always been a major concern. Today, the principal difficulty with which we are confronted is not so much access to water but more precisely the access to suitable water for drinking. Water can be the vehicle of a very high number of pathogenic agents voided into the external medium by the human or animal faeces and can thus be at the origin of many waterborne diseases. In 1996, WHO quantified to 4 billion, the number of diarrhea episodes which occurred in the world, and were responsible for the death of 3.1 million people of whom the large majority were children less than five years [1]. In the light of these figures, one realizes the importance of the problem of drinking water assessment and the capital need to seek solutions to improve the situation in this sector. The natural water analysis for physical, chemical properties including trace element contents are very important for public health studies especially for children. These studies are also a main part of pollution studies in the environment [2-4]. The 5-10 ages children are drinking water in the investigated water sources. The determinations in drinking water have been performed using classical analytical techniques including titrimetry, gravimetry and modern instrumental techniques such as atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), UV-Vis spectrometry, etc. Because of the low cost and easiness in usage, atomic absorption spectrophotometry is the main instrument for the determinations of the trace metal ions in drinking water in the analytical chemistry laboratories [5-7]. Every year approximately five thousand children are studying in these schools. Not only the children but also the local villagers were drinking water of these water sources (Tube-wells). According to our literature review, no report has been published concerning the trace metal ions of these areas.

In the Present work arsenic, iron and manganese in drinking water samples from the water sources of different primary schools in Magura district were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Physical and chemical properties of the samples were also determined by using standard analytical methods.

2. Materials and Method

2.1. Sample Collection

The drinking water samples were collected in prewashed (with detergent, doubly de-ionised distilled water, diluted HNO3 and doubly de-ionised distilled water, respectively) high density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles from twenty different primary schools around Magura district in June 2013. The sampling locations were shown in Table-1. pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of the samples were measured while collecting the samples. Two liters (one liter for the determinations of main ions and one liter for metal determinations) of each water sample was taken in duplicate at two different sampling periods approximately 1 month apart. The determinations of the major ions of the water samples were performed within one week after sample collection.

The distances of laboratory from Magura district are approximately 40 killometers. The samples were obtained directly from the water pump after allowing the water to run for at least 25 minutes. The samples for metal determinations were filtered through a Millipore cellulose membrane of 0.45 µm pore size and were stored in 1 liter HDPE bottles and acidified to 1% with nitric acid. These samples were subsequently stored at 4°C for as short a time as possible before analysis to minimize physicochemical changes.

Table 1. The locations of the collected water samples.

Sl No Upazilla Union Village Sampling Location GPS
Latitude (N) Longitude (E)
1 MaguraSadar BeroilPolita Dighalkandi Dighalkandi Govt. Primary School 23°21'23" 89°30'44"
2 MaguraSadar Chaulia Chandpur ChandpurPurboparaRegd. PrimarySchool 23°27'06" 89°29'12"
3 MaguraSadar Kuchiamora Kuchiamora KuchiamoraGovt. Primary School 23°20'37" 89°26'17"
4 MaguraSadar Atharokhada Madhabpur Madhabpur Govt. Primary School 23°32'13" 89°25'55"
5 MaguraSadar Moghi TitarKhaPara TitarKhapara Regd. Primary School 23°25'28" 89°23'16"
6 Mohammadpur Binodpur Kalukandi Kalukandi Regd. Govt. Primary School 23°26'34" 89°32'12"
7 Mohammadpur Balidia Charborboria Charbororia Regd. Primary School 23°22'56" 89°34'02"
8 Mohammadpur Mohammadpur Raipur Raipur Regd. Primary School 23°25'49" 89°35'19"
9 Mohammadpur Polashbaria Bathari Bathari Regd. Primary School 23°20'08" 89°33'21"
10 Mohammadpur Rajapur Rajgonj Rajgonj Govt. Primary School 23°23'13" 89°31'12"
11 Salikha Gangarampur Bamonkhali Bamonkhali Govt. Primary School 23°15'34" 89°26'43"
12 Salikha Dhaneswargati Dhaneswargati Dhaneswargati Community. PrimarySchool 23°25'17" 89°18'15"
13 Salikha Dhaneswargati Tilkhari Tilkhari Govt. Primary School 23°22'56" 89°17'09"
14 Salikha Talkhari Chandra Chandra Govt. Primary School 23°21'03" 89°18'12"
15 Salikha Satakhali Kholabaria KholabariaRegd. Primary School 23°18'32" 89°19'52"
16 Sreepur Sreekol Sreekol Sreekol Govt. Primary School 23°36'49" 89°21'44"
17 Sreepur Goespur Joka Joka Govt. PrimarySchool 23°36'41" 89°22'35"
18 Sreepur Amolsar Kodla Kodla Govt. PrimarySchool 23°39'05" 89°25'58"
19 Sreepur Dariapur Char Chougachi Charchougachi Regd. Primary School 23°37'59" 89°27'22"
20 Sreepur Kadirpara Gashiara Gashiara Govt. Primary School 23°33'32" 89°29'14"

2.2. Reagent and Solutions

Analytical grade reagent chemicals were employed for the preparation of all solutions. Freshly prepared double de-ionised distilled water, from a quartz still, was used in all experiments. Hydrochloric acid (5M), Sodium Borohydride reagent (0.6% NaBH4 solution), Potassium Iodide (20% KI) solution as a reductant, Inert gas Argon (as a carrier gas) for HVG system (determination of As), Air-Acetylene as a fuel gas for direct flame system (determination of Fe and Mn), Commercial grade Standard solutions(CRM) of As, Fe, Mn solutions were used throughout the experiments.

2.3. Apparatus

Prior to analysis, all instruments were calibrated according to manufacturer’s recommendations. pH was measured by using SensIONTM-MM340 digital meter. Conductivity was determined using an Electrical Conductivity meter CM-21 P. The meter was calibrated by using standard EC=1214 µs/cm. Chloride was determined using the Argentometric Method. Determination of hardness was done by EDTA titrimetric methods. Atomic absorption spectrometer (Shimadzu-AA7000) equipped with deuterium background correction, double beam system were used for the analysis of Arsenic (Hydride Vapour Generated Method), Iron and Manganese (direct flame method). All examine were conducted according to American Public Health Association Standard Methods [8].

2.4. Analysis for TDS and Metal Ions

Total Dissolved Solids were analyzed by the use of multimeter using respective standards solutions. Arsenic, Iron & Manganese were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Method. As(V) is reduced to As(III) using potassium iodide and sodiumborohydride reagent to form arsine vapour and detect the total arsenic. Here inert gas argon is used as a carrier gas. This process is called Hydride Vapour Generation (HVG). On the other hand iron & manganese is analyzed by atomization process creating a flame by the combustion of air & acetylene gas (flame temperature nearly about 2200°C).

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Physical and Chemical Properties of the Samples

The main physical and chemical properties of the drinking water samples including pH, electrical conductivity, chloride, hardness and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) from Magura districts were given in Table-2. The pH values in the range of 7.29 to 8.93 (lowest in Gashiara Govt. Primary School, highest Charborboria Regd. Primary School). The ranges for electrical conductivity were 343 to 3000 µS/cm. The lowest level of the chloride in Raipur Regd. Primary School and Chandra Govt. Primary School as 10mg/l, the highest level of the chloride was found in Bathari Registard Primary School as 725 mg/l. The hardness of the samples was in the ranges of 130 mg/l to 790 mg/l as CaCO3. The Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) of the samples were in the range of 178 to 1530 mg/l. The drinking water quality standard guideline of hardness in Bangladesh is 500 mg/l as CaCO3 and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) is 1000 mg/l. Dighalkandi Govt. Primary School and Bathari Regd. Primary School does not permitted these two parameter. The Bangladesh Drinking Standards (BDS) for pH is 6.5-8.5 whereas Chloride is between 150-600 mg/l. No standard guideline value is proposed for Electrical Conductivity .

3.2. Trace Metal Ions

The drinking water samples collected from the twenty water points in Magura were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry in triplicate to determine arsenic, iron and manganese. The concentrations are given in Table-3.

The lowest level of Arsenic (BDL) was detected in Bathari Regd. Primary School, Mohammadpur Upazilla and the highest level in Kalukandi Regd. Govt. Primary School as 0.012 mg/l. Bangladesh standards for drinking water quality of arsenic is 0.05 mg/l but WHO guideline is 0.01 mg/l. So, as can be seen in Table-3, in the locations Kalukandi Regd. Govt. Primary School and Charchougachi Regd. Primary School permitted BDS guideline value but does not WHO guideline [1].

Table 2. The physical and chemical properties of drinking water samples.

Sl No Type of Tube-wells Deepth (m) Sampling Location pH EC (µs/cm) Chloride (mg/l) Hardness (mg CaCO3/l) TDS (mg/l)
1 Tara Deep 164.63 Dighalkandi Govt. Primary School 7.70 3000 517 790 1530
2 Tara Deep 167.68 Chandpur Purbopara Regd. Primary School 8.41 496 20 220 258
3 Tara Deep 167.68 Kuchiamora Govt. Primary School 8.03 851 64 260 443
4 Tara Deep 163.10 Madhabpur Govt. Primary School 8.52 457 40 210 238
5 Tara Deep 164.63 Titar Khapara Regd. Primary School 8.70 367 15 210 191
6 Tara Deep 149.28 Kalukandi Regd. Govt. Primary School 8.62 402 15 190 210
7 Tara Deep 171.28 Charbororia Regd. Primary School 8.93 1030 144 150 536
8 Tara Deep 167.28 Raipur Regd. Primary School 8.76 343 10 130 178
9 Tara Deep 159.28 Bathari Regd. Primary School 8.15 2520 725 600 1310
10 Tara Deep 153.28 Rajgonj Govt. Primary School 8.30 686 25 250 357
11 Tara Deep 135.67 Bamonkhali Govt. Primary School 8.72 993 129 210 516
12 Tara Deep 150.91 Dhaneswargati Community. Primary School 8.87 424 45 210 220
13 Tara Deep 166.15 Tilkhari Govt. Primary School 8.71 440 25 210 229
14 Tara Deep 149.39 Chandra Govt. Primary School 8.62 348 10 160 180
15 Tara Deep 160.06 Kholabaria Regd. Primary School 8.57 549 20 250 285
16 Tara Deep 179.87 Sreekol Govt. Primary School 8.12 877 89 280 456
17 Tara Deep 164.63 Joka Govt. Primary School 7.79 1212 141 440 630
18 Tara Deep 161.58 Kodla Govt. Primary School 8.22 848 103 280 440
19 Tara Deep 158.53 Charchougachi Regd. Primary School 8.15 593 19 220 308
20 Tara Deep 158.53 Gashiara Govt. Primary School 7.29 1042 76 410 542

The highest iron level was found in Tilkhari Govt. Primary Schoolin Salikha Upazillaas 3.79 mg/l and lowest in Rajgonj Govt. Primary Schoolas 0.03 mg/l in Mohammadpur Upazilla. Regarding iron, it can be seen that maximum water points (twelve sources out of twenty-60%) exceeded the Bangladesh Drinking Standards as well as WHO Standards [1], which agree with results obtained by other authorsin other countries [9-11]. The BDS of iron is 0.3-1.0 mg/l.

The highest manganese concentration was detected in Gashiara Govt. Primary School in Sreepur upazilla as 0.66 mg/l and lowest in Kalukandi Regd. Govt. Primary School as 0.03 mg/l in Mohammadpur upazilla. The acceptable limit of Manganese in Bangladesh is 0.1 mg/l. So, eight water points out of twenty (40%) containing higher than the BDS guideline value.

Table 3. The concentrations of trace metal ions in drinking water samples.

Sl No Sampling Location As (mg/l) Fe (mg/l) Mn (mg/l)
1 Dighalkandi Govt. Primary School 0.003 0.05 0.09
2 Chandpur Purbopara Regd. Primary School 0.003 1.04 0.16
3 Kuchiamora Govt. Primary School 0.004 1.36 0.07
4 Madhabpur Govt. Primary School 0.006 0.71 0.04
5 TitarKhapara Reg. Primary School 0.004 2.01 0.04
6 Kalukandi Reg. Govt. Primary School 0.012 0.33 0.03
7 Charbororia Reg. Primary School 0.004 1.30 0.29
8 Raipur Reg. Primary School 0.004 0.32 0.04
9 Bathari Reg. Primary School BDL 0.05 0.08
10 Rajgonj Govt. Primary School 0.001 0.03 0.06
11 Bamonkhali Govt. Primary School 0.004 0.21 0.06
12 Dhaneswargati Community Primary School 0.001 2.38 0.13
13 Tilkhari Govt. Primary School 0.005 3.79 0.18
14 Chandra Govt. Primary School 0.001 2.77 0.16
15 Kholabaria Reg. Primary School 0.009 1.10 0.28
16 Sreekol Govt. Primary School 0.003 0.76 0.04
17 Joka Govt. Primary School 0.002 2.65 0.41
18 Kodla Govt. Primary School 0.002 1.16 0.04
19 Charchougachi Reg. Primary School 0.011 1.35 0.02
20 Gashiara Govt. Primary School 0.005 1.56 0.66

BDL: Below the detection limit.

4. Conclusion

From the above discussion we can conclude that the people of Bangladesh are living with a danger of drinking water. Hence we need to adapt steps to cope the problems. Being a responsible citizen of Bangladesh we should make awareness to the people about harmfulness of heavy metals present in drinking water and inspire community people about sharing of safe drinking water.


References

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